Changes and specimens of the English language Essay

& # 1052 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1056 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1041 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1100 ;& # 1059 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ;“ & # 1043 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ;& # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; . & # 1060 ; . & # 1057 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; ”& # 1060 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ;& # 1050 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ;CHANGES AND SPECIMENS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE& # 1048 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; :& # 1057 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1050 ; -53 & # 1050 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1058 ; .

& # 1045 ; .& # 1043 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; 2006& # 1057 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ;Introduction1 The writing system of English2 ENGLISH OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY3 ENGLISH OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY4 ENGLISH OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY5. ENGLISH OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY6. ENGLISH OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY7.ENGLISH OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY8. ENGLISH, OR ANGLO-SAXON, OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY9.

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Anglo-saxon OF THE ELEVENTH CENTURY, COMPARED WITH ENGLISH10. Anglo-saxon IN THE TIME OF KING ALFREDDecisionLiteratureINTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION“ Quot enim verba, et nonnunquam in deterius, hoc, quo vivimus, saeculo, partim aliqa, partim nulla necessitate cogente, mutata sunt? ” — ROB. AINSWORTH: Lat. Dict. , 4to ; Praef. , p. eleven.In the usage of linguistic communication, every one chooses his words from that common stock which he has learned, and applies them in pattern harmonizing to his ain wonts and impressions.

If the manner of different authors of the same age is assorted, much greater is the assortment which appears in the productions of different ages. Hence the day of the month of a book may frequently be really credibly conjectured from the distinctive features of its manner. As to what is best in itself, or best adapted to the topic in manus, every author must endeavor to go his ain justice.

He who, in any kind of composing, would compose with a maestro ‘s manus, must foremost use himself to books with a bookman ‘s diligence. He must believe it worth his piece to inform himself, that he may be critical. Desiring to give the pupil all the advantage, amusement, and satisfaction, that can be expected from a work of this sort, I shall subjoin a few brief specimens in illustration of what has been said in the foregoing chapter. The order of clip will be followed reciprocally ; and, as Saxon characters are non really easy obtained, or really disposed to be read, the Roman letters will be employed for the few illustrations to which the others would be more appropriate.

But there are some distinctive features of ancient use in English, which, for the information of the immature reader, it is proper in the first topographic point to explicate.With regard to the letters, there are several alterations to be mentioned. ( 1. ) The pages of old books are frequently crowded with capitals: it was at one clip the usage to separate all nouns, and often verbs, or any other of import words, by heading them with a great missive.

( 2. ) The missive Ess, of the lower instance, had till recently two signifiers, the long and the short, as [ tall-s ] and s ; the former really about resembling the little degree Fahrenheit, and the latter, its ain capital. The short s was used at the terminal of words, and the long [ tall-s ] , in other topographic points ; but the latter is now laid aside, in favor of the more typical signifier.

( 3. ) The letters I and J were once considered as one and the same. Hence we find hallelujah for halleluiah, Iohn for John, iudgement for opinion, & A ; c. And in many lexicons, the words get downing with J are still assorted with those which begin with I.

( 4. ) The letters U and V were assorted in similar mode, and for the same ground ; the latter being a harmonic power given to the former, and at length distinguished from it by a different signifier. Or instead, the figure of the capital seems to hold been at last appropriated to the 1, and that of the little missive to the other. But in old books the signifiers of these two letters are continually confounded or transposed. Hence it is, that our Double-u is composed of two Vees ; which, as we see in old books, were sometimes printed individually: as, VV, for W ; or vv, for tungsten.1 THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF ENGLISH 1 THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF ENGLISHThe writing system of our linguistic communication, rude and unsettled as it still is in many respects, was once much more variable and diverse.

In books a hundred old ages old or more, we frequently find the most common words spelled diversely by the same author, and even upon the really same page. With regard to the signifiers of words, a few specifics may here be noticed: ( 1. ) The article an, from which the N was dropped before words get downing with a harmonic sound, is frequently found in old books where a would be more proper ; as, an bosom, an aid, an hill, an one, an usage. ( 2. ) Till the 17th century, the genitive instance was written without the apostrophe ; being formed at different times, in Es, is, ys, or s, like the plural ; and seemingly without regulation or uniformity in regard to the doubling of the concluding consonant: as Goddes, Godes, Godis, Godys, or Supreme beings, for God ‘s ; so mannes, mannis, mannys or adult males, for adult male ‘s. Dr.

Ash, whose English Grammar was in some reputation in the latter portion of the 18th century, argued against the usage of the apostrophe, avering that it was rarely used to separate the genitive instance boulder clay about the beginning of that century ; and he so prophesied that the clip would come, when right authors would put it aside once more, as a unusual corruptness, an improper “ going from the original formation ” of that instance of English nouns. And, among the guesss of these latter yearss, I have someplace seen an effort to belittle this utile mark, and detonate it, as an unsightly thing ne’er good established. It does non so, like a syllabic mark, inform the ear or impact the sound ; but still it is utile, because it distinguishes to the oculus, non merely the instance, but the figure, of the nouns therefore marked. Pronouns, being different in their declension, do non necessitate it, and should therefore ever be written without it.The common use of those who have spoken English, has ever inclined instead to brevity than to tune ; contraction and elision of the ancient expirations of words, constitute no little portion of the alteration which has taken topographic point, or of the difference which possibly ever existed between the solemn and the familiar manner. In regard to music, nevertheless, these expirations have surely nil to self-praise ; nor does the earliest period of the linguistic communication look to be that in which they were the most by and large used without contraction.

That grade of smoothness of which the lingua was anciently susceptible, had surely no confederation with these extra syllables. The long heavy terminations which constitute the declensions and junctions of the most admired linguistic communications, and which seem to chime so good with the sublimity of the Greek, the stateliness of the Latin, the sugariness of the Italian, the self-respect of the Spanish, or the gloss of the Gallic, ne’er had any topographic point in English. The inflexions given to our words ne’er embraced any other vowel power than that of the short vitamin E or I ; and even, this we are inclined to distribute with, whenever we can ; so that most of our grammatical inflexions are, to the ear, nil but consonants blended with the concluding syllables of the words to which they are added.

Ing for the first participial, Er for the comparative grade, and est for the superlative, are so added as whole syllables ; but the remainder, as vitamin D or erectile dysfunction for preterits and perfect participials, s or Es for the plural figure of nouns, or for the 3rd individual singular of verbs, and st or est for the 2nd individual singular of verbs, nine times in 10, autumn into the sound or syllable with which the primitive word terminates. English verbs, as they are now normally used, run through their full junction without geting a individual syllable from inflexion, except sometimes when the sound of vitamin D, s, or st can non be added to them.This simpleness, so characteristic of our modern English, every bit good as of the Saxon lingua, its proper parent, is attended with advantages that go far to counterbalance for all that is accordingly lost in music, or in the autonomy of heterotaxy. Our formation of the tempers and tenses, by agencies of a few separate aides, all monosyllabic, and largely without inflexion, is non merely simple and easy, but beautiful, chaste, and strong. In my sentiment, our syntacticians have shown far more fondness for the obsolete or obsolescent expirations en, eth, est, and edst, than they truly deserve. Till the beginning of the 16th century, nut was used to tag the plural figure of verbs, as, they sayen for they say ; after which, it appears to hold been dropped.

Before the beginning of the 17th century, s or Es began to challenge with Thursday or eth the right of organizing the 3rd individual singular of verbs ; and, as the Bible and other grave books used merely the latter, a clear differentiation obtained, between the solemn and the familiar manner, which differentiation is good known at this twenty-four hours. Therefore we have, He runs, walks, drives, ranges, & A ; c. , for the one ; and, He runneth, walketh, rideth, reacheth, & A ; c. , for the other. About the same clip, or possibly earlier, the usage of the 2nd individual remarkable began to be avoided in polite conversation, by the permutation of the plural verb and pronoun ; and, when used in poesy, it was frequently contracted, so as to forestall any syllabic addition.

In old books, all verbs and participials that were intended to be contracted in pronunciation, were contracted besides, in some manner, by the author: as, “ name ‘d, transport ‘d, sacrific ‘d ; ” “ fly’st, ascrib’st, cryd’st ; ” “ tost, curst, blest, finisht ; ” and others countless. All these, and such as are like them, we now pronounce in the same manner, but normally write otherwise ; as, called, carried, sacrificed ; fliest, ascribest, criettst ; tossed, cursed, blessed, finished. Most of these subjects will be farther noticed in the Grammar.2 ENGLISH OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 2 ENGLISH OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY1.Queen Victoria ‘s Answer to an Address. — Example written in 1837.

“ I thank you for your commiseration upon the decease of his late Majesty, for the justness which you render to his character, and to the steps of his reign, and for your warm praises upon my accession to the throne. I join in your supplications for the prosperity of my reign, the best security for which is to be found in fear for our sanctum faith, and in the observation of its responsibilities. ” — VICTORIA, to the Friends ‘ Society.2.From President Adams ‘s Eulogy on Lafayette. — Written in 1834.“ Pronounce him one of the first work forces of his age, and you have yet non done him justness. Try him by that trial to which he sought in vain to excite the vulgar and selfish spirit of Napoleon ; category him among the work forces who, to compare and sit themselves, must take in the compass of all ages ; turn back your eyes upon the records of clip ; summon from the creative activity of the universe to this twenty-four hours the mighty dead of every age and every climate ; and where, among the race of simply mortal work forces, shall one be found, who, as the helper of his sort, shall claim to take precedency of Lafayette? ” — JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.

3.From President Jackson ‘s Proclamation against Nullification. — 1832.“ No, we have non erred! The Fundamental law is still the object of our fear, the bond of our Union, our defense mechanism in danger, the beginning of our prosperity in peace.

It shall fall, as we have received it, uncorrupted by sophistical building, to our descendants: and the forfeits of local involvement, of State biass, of personal animuss, that were made to convey it into being, will once more be patriotically offered for its support. ” — ANDREW JACKSON.4.From a Note on one of Robert Hall ‘s Sermons. — Written about 1831.“ After he had written down the contact apostrophe which occurs at approximately page 76 of most of the editions — ‘Eternal God! on what are thine enemies purpose! what are those endeavors of guilt and horror, that, for the safety of their performing artists, necessitate to be enveloped in a darkness which the oculus of Heaven must non perforate! ‘ — he asked, ‘Did I say penetrate, sir, when I preached, it? ‘ ‘Yes. ‘ ‘Do you think, sir, I may venture toalter it? for no adult male who considered the force of the English linguistic communication, would utilize a word of three syllables at that place, but from absolute necessity.

‘ ‘You are doubtless at autonomy to change it, if you think good. ‘ ‘Then be so good, sir, as to take your pencil, and for penetrate put Pierce ; Pierce is the word, sir, and the lone word to be used at that place. ‘ ” — OLINTHUS GREGORY.5.

King William ‘s Answer to an Address. — Example written in 1830.“ I thank you unfeignedly for your commiseration with me, on history of the loss which I have sustained, in common with my people, by the decease of my lamented brother, his late Majesty. The confidences which you have conveyed to me, of trueness and fond fond regard to my individual, are really satisfying to my feelings.

You may trust upon my favor and protection, and upon my dying enterprises to advance morality and true piousness among all categories of my topics. ” — WILLIAM IV, to the Friends.6.Reign of George IV, 1830 dorsum to 1820. — Example written in 1827.

“ That forenoon, 1000, that slumbered [ 48 ] non earlier, Nor slept, great Ocean I laid thy moving ridges to rest, And hushed thy mighty minstrelsy. No breath Thy deep calm stirred, no five, no oar ; Like beauty freshly dead, so unagitated, so still, So lovely, 1000, beneath the visible radiation that fell From angel-chariots sentinelled on high, Reposed, and listened, and saw thy life alteration, Thy dead arise. Charybdis listened, and Scylla ; And savage Euxine on the Thracian beach Lay motionless: and every conflict ship Stood still ; and every ship of ware, And all that sailed, of every name, stood still. ” ROBERT POLLOK: Course of Time, Book VII, line 634-647.“ There is, it will be confessed, a delicate esthesia to character, a sober desire of repute, a wish to possess the regard of the wise and good, felt by the purest heads, which is at the farthest remove from haughtiness or amour propre.

The humbleness of a baronial head barely dares approve of itself, until it has secured the approbation of others. Very different is that ungratified desire of differentiation, that passion for theatrical show, which inflames the bosom and occupies the whole attending of conceited work forces. * * * The genuinely good adult male is covetous over himself, lest the ill fame of his best actions, by intermixing itself with their motivation, should decrease their value ; the vain adult male performs the same actions for the interest of that ill fame. The good adult male softly discharges his responsibility, and shuns fanfare ; the vain adult male considers every good title lost that is non publickly displayed. The 1 is captive upon worlds, the other upon glosss: the one aims to be virtuous, the other to look so. ” — ROBERT HALL: Sermon on Modern Infidelity.“ Of all the temperaments and wonts which lead to political prosperity, Religion and Morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that adult male claim the testimonial of nationalism, who should labor to overthrow these great pillars of human felicity, these firmest props of the responsibilities of work forces and citizens.

The mere politician, every bit with the pious adult male, ought to esteem and care for them. A volume could non follow all their connections with private and publick felicitousness. Let it merely be asked, where is the security for belongings, for repute, for life, if the sense of spiritual duty desert the curses which are the instruments of probe in tribunals of justness? And allow us with cautiousness indulge the guess, that morality can be maintained without faith.

Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined instruction on heads of a curious construction ; ground and experience both forbid us to anticipate that national morality can predominate in exclusion of spiritual rule. ” — GEORGE WASHINGTON.“ That he ever wrote as he would believe it necessary to compose now, can non be affirmed ; his instructions were such as the character of his readers made proper. That general cognition which now circulates in common talk, was in his clip seldom to be found. Men non professing larning, were non ashamed of ignorance ; and in the female universe, any familiarity with books was distinguished merely to be censured. His intent was to inculcate literary wonder, by soft and unsuspected conveyance, into the homosexual, the idle, and the wealthy ; he hence presented cognition in the most beguiling signifier, non exalted and severe, but accessible and familiar. When he shewed them their defects, he shewed them likewise that they might easy be supplied.

His effort succeeded ; enquiry was awakened, and comprehension expanded. An emulation of rational elegance was excited, and from this clip to our ain, life has been bit by bit exalted, and conversation purified and enlarged. ” — SAMUEL JOHNSON: Lifes, p. 321.Reign of George II, 1760 dorsum to 1727. — Example written in 1751.

“ We Britons in our clip have been singular borrowers, as our multiform Language may sufficiently prove. Our Footings in polite Literature prove, that this came from Greece ; our footings in Music and Painting, that these came from Italy ; our Phrases in Cookery and War, that we learnt these from the Gallic ; and our phrases in Navigation, that we were taught by the Ian flemings and Low Dutch. These many and really different Beginnings of our Language may be the cause, why it is so lacking in Regularity and Analogy. Yet we have this advantage to counterbalance the defect, that what we want in Elegance, we gain in Copiousness, in which last regard few Languages will be found superior to our ain.

” — JAMES HARRIS: Hermes, Book three, Ch. V, p. 408.Reign of George I, 1727 dorsum to 1714. — Example written about 1718.“ There is a certain coldness and indifference in the phrases of our European linguistic communications, when they are compared with the Oriental signifiers of address: and it happens really fortunately, that the Hebrew parlances ran into the English lingua, with a peculiar grace and beauty. Our linguistic communication has received countless elegancies and betterments from that extract of Hebraisms, which are derived to it out of the poetical transitions in holy writ.

They give a force and energy to our looks, warm and inspire our linguistic communication, and convey our ideas in more fervent and intense phrases, than any that are to be met with in our lingua. ” — JOSEPHADDISON: Evidences, p. 192.Reign of Queen Anne, 1714 to 1702. — Example written in 1708.“ Some by old words to Fame hold made pretension, Ancientss in phrase, mere moderns in their sense ; Such labour ‘d nothings, in so unusual a manner, Amaze Thursday ‘ unlearn ‘d, and do the learned smiling.

” “ In words, as manners, the same regulation will keep ; Alike fantastick, if excessively new or old: Be non the first by whom the new are try ‘d, Nor yet the last to put the old aside. ” ALEXANDER POPE: Essay on Criticism, l. 324-336.3 ENGLISH OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 3 ENGLISH OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY“ And when we see a Man of Milton ‘s Wit Chime in with such a Herd, and Help on the Cry against Hirelings! We find How Easie it is for Folly and Knavery to Meet, and that they are Near of Kin, Tho they bear Different Aspects. Therefor since Milton has put himself upon a Degree with the Religious society of friendss in this, I will allow them travel together. And take every bit small Notice of his Buffoonry, as of their Dulness against Tythes. Ther is nil deserving Quoting in his Lampoon against the Hirelings. But what ther is of Argument in it, is to the full Consider ‘d in what follows.

” — CHARLES LESLIE: Divine Right of Tithes, Pref. , p. eleven.Reign of James II, 1689 dorsum to 1685. — Example written in 1685.“ His conversation, humor, and parts, His cognition in the noblest utile humanistic disciplines, Were such, dead writers could non give ; But habitudes of those who live ; Who, illuming him, did greater visible radiations receive: He drain ‘d from all, and all they knew ; His apprehensiveness quick, his judgement true: That the most learn ‘d with shame confess His cognition more, his reading merely less.

” JOHN DRYDEN: Ode to the Memory of Charles II ; Poems, p. 84.Reign of Charles II, 1685 to 1660. — Example from a Letter to the Earl of Sunderland, dated,“ Philadelphia, 28th 5th minute. July, 1683. ”“ And I will venture to state, that by the aid of God, and such baronial Friends, I will demo a Province in seven old ages, equal to her neighbors of 40 old ages seting.

I have lay ‘d out the Province into Countys. Six are begun to be seated ; they lye on the great river, and are planted about six stat mis back. The town platt is a stat mi long, and two deep, — has a navigable river on each side, the least every bit wide as the Thames at Woolwych, from three to eight fthms H2O. There is built about 80 houses, and I have settled at least three hundred farmes immediate to it. ” — WILLIAM PENN. The Friend, Vol.

seven, p. 179.From an Address or Dedication to Charles II. — Written in 1675.

“ There is no [ other ] male monarch in the universe, who can so by experimentation attest of God ‘s Providence and goodness ; neither is at that place any [ other ] , who regulations so many free people, so many true Christians: which thing renders thy authorities more honorable, thyself more considerable, than the accession of many states filled with slavish and superstitious psyches. ” — ROBERT BARCLAY: Apology, p. eight.The undermentioned illustration, from the beginning of Paradise Lost, foremost published in 1667, has been cited by several writers, to demo how big a proportion of our linguistic communication is of Saxon beginning. The 13 words in Italics are the lone 1s in this transition, which seem to hold been derived from any other beginning.“ Of adult male ‘s first noncompliance, and the fruit Of that out tree, whose mortal gustatory sensation Brought decease into the universe, and all our suffering, With loss of Eden ; till one greater Man Restore us, and recover the blissful place, Sing, heav’nly Muse, that on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That shepherd, who foremost taught the chosen seed, In the beginning, how the Heav’ns and Earth Rose out of Chaos.

” — MILTON: Eden Lost,Book I.Examples written during Cromwell ‘s Protectorate, 1660 to 1650.“ The Queene was pleased to prove me the missive, the seale beinge a Roman bird of Jove, havinge characters about it about like the Greeke. This twenty-four hours, in the afternoone, the vice-chauncellor came to me and stayed about four hours with me ; in which tyme we conversed upon the longe debates. ” — WHITELOCKE.

Bucke ‘s Class. Gram. , p. 149.

“ I am yet heere, and have the States of Holland ingaged in a more than ordnary maner, to secure me audience of the States Generall. Whatever happen, the effects must needes be good. ” — STRICKLAND: Bucke ‘s Classical Gram. , p. 149.Reign of Charles I, 1648 to 1625. — Example from Ben Jonson ‘s Grammar, written about 1634 ; but the writing system is more modern.

“ The 2nd and 3rd individual singular of the present are made of the first, by adding Eastern Time and eth ; which last is sometimes shortened into s. It seemeth to hold been poetical license which foremost introduced this abbreviation of the 3rd individual into usage ; but our best syntacticians have condemned it upon some occasions, though possibly non to be perfectly banished the common and familiar manner. ”“ The individuals plural maintain the expiration of the first individual remarkable. In former times, boulder clay about the reign of Henry the eighth, they were wont to be formed by adding nut ; therefore, loven, sayen, complainen. But now ( whatever is the cause ) it hath rather grown out of usage, and that other so by and large prevailed, that I dare non assume to put this afoot once more: albeit ( to state you my sentiment ) I am persuaded that the deficiency hereof good considered, will be found a great defect to our lingua. For seeing clip and individual be, as it were, the right and left manus of a verb, what can the maiming bring else, but a limping to the whole organic structure? ” — Book I, Chap.

sixteen.Reign of James I, 1625 to 1603. — From an Advertisement, dated 1608.

“ I svppose it wholly needlesse ( Christian Reader ) by commending M. William Perkins, the Writer of this booke, to wooe your holy fondness, which either himselfe in his life clip by his Christian conversation hath woon in you, or sithence his decease, the neuer-dying memorie of his first-class cognition, his great humilitie, his sound faith, his feruent zeale, his painefull labor, in the Church of God, doe most iustly challenge at your custodies: onely in one word, I dare be bold to state of him as in times past Nazianzen spake of Athanasius. His life was a good definition of a true curate and sermonizer of the Gospell. ” — The Printer to the Reader.Examples written about the terminal of Elizabeth ‘s reign — 1603.

“ Some say, That euer ‘gainst that season comes Wherein our Saviour ‘s Birth is celebrated, The Bird of Dawning singeth all dark long ; And so, say they, no Spirit dares walk abroad: The darks are wholsom, so no Planets strike, No Fairy takes, nor Witch hath pow’r to appeal ; So hallow ‘d and so gracious is the clip. ” SHAKSPEARE: Hamlet.“ The sea, with such a storme as his bare caput In hell-blacke dark indur ‘d, would haue buoy ‘d up And quench ‘d the stelled fires. Yet, poore old bosom, he holpe the heuens to raine. If wolues had at thy gate ululation ‘d that sterne clip, Thou shouldst haue said, Good porter, turne the key. ” SHAKSPEARE: Lear.4 ENGLISH OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 4 ENGLISH OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURYReign of Elizabeth, 1603 dorsum to 1558.

— Example written in 1592.“ As for the soule, it is no accidentarie qualitie, but a spirituall and inuisible kernel or nature, existing by it selfe. Which plainely appeares in that the soules of work forces haue beeing and continuation every bit good Forth of the organic structures of work forces as in the same ; and are as wel subiect to tortures as the bodie is. And whereas we can and doe put in practise sundrie actions of life, sense, gesture, vnderstanding, we doe it onely by the power and vertue of the soule.

Hence ariseth the difference betweene the soules of work forces, and animals. The soules of work forces are substances: but the soules of other animals seeme non to be substances ; because they haue no beeing out of the organic structures in which they are. ” — WILLIAM PERKINS: Theol.

Works, pagination, p. 155.Examples written about the beginning of Elizabeth ‘s reign. — 1558.“ Who can perswade, when lese majesty is aboue ground ; and mighte ruleth righte ; and it is had for lawfull, whatsoever is lustfull ; and commotioners are better than commissioners ; and common suffering is named common weale? ” — SIR JOHN CHEKE.

“ If a yong jentleman will venture him selfe into the companie of bullies, it is over great a jeopardie, lest their facions, maners, ideas, taulke, and dedes, will verie sone be over similar. ” — ROGER ASCHAM.Reign of Mary the Bigot, 1558 to 1553. — Example written about 1555.“ And after that Doctrinehad spoken these wordes the said companye of the musys poeticall beynge rebukyd and sad, caste downe their countenaunce to the grounde, and by blussyng confessed their shamefastnes, and went out of the dores. But I ( that had my syght dull and blynd wyth wepyng, so that I knew non what adult female this was hauyng soo great aucthoritie ) was amasyd or astonyed, and lokyng downeward, towarde the land, I began pryvyle to look what thyng she would salvage ferther. ” — COLVILLE: Version from Boethius: Johnson ‘s Hist. of E.

L. , p. 29.Examples referred by Dr.

Johnson to the twelvemonth 1553.“ Pronunciation is an apte orderinge bothe of the voyce, countenaunce, and all the whole bodye, accordynge to the worthinea of such woordes and mater as by speache are declared. The vse hereof is suche for anye one that liketh to haue prayse for tellynge his narrative in unfastened assemblie, that hauing a good lingua, and a comelye countenaunce, he shal be thought to passe all other that haue non the similar vtteraunce: thoughe they have muche better learning. ” — DR. WILSON: Johnson ‘s Hist. E. L. , p.

45.Reign of Edward VI, 1553 to 1547. — Example written about 1550.“ Who that will followe the graces manyfolde Which are in vertue, shall finde auauncement: Wherefore ye fooles that in your sinne are bolde, Ensue ye wisdome, and leaue your lewde purpose, Wisdome is the manner of work forces most first-class: Therefore haue done, and shortly spede your gait, To quaynt your ego and company with grace. ” ALEXANDER BARCLAY: Johnson ‘s Hist. E. L.

, p. 44.Reign of Henry VIII, 1547 to 1509. — Example dated 1541.

“ Let hym that is angry euen at the fyrste consyder one of these thinges, that like as he is a adult male, so is besides the other, with whom he is angry, and therefore it is as lefull for the other to be angry, as unto hym: and if he so be, than shall that choler be to hym displeasant, and stere hym more to be angrye. ” — SIR THOMAS ELLIOTT: Castel of Helthe.Example of the earliest English Blank Verse ; written about 1540.The supposed writer died in 1541, aged 38. The piece from which these lines are taken describes the decease of Zoroas, an Egyptian uranologist, slain in Alexander ‘s first conflict with the Persians.“ The Persians waild such wisdom to foregoe ; And really sone the Macedonians wisht He would hold lived ; king Alexander selfe Demde him a adult male unmete to dye at all ; Who wonne like congratulations for conquering of his yre, As for stoute work forces in field that twenty-four hours subdued, Who princes taught how to discerne a adult male, That in his caput so rare a gem beares ; But over all those same Camenes, [ 49 ] those same Divine Camenes, whose honor he procurde, As stamp parent doth his girls weale, Lamented, and for thankes, all that they can, Make cherish hym deceast, and sett hym free, From dark limbo of devouring decease. ” Probably written by SIR THOMASWYAT.A Letter written from prison, with a coal.

The author, Sir Thomas More, whose plants, both in prose and poetry, were considered theoretical accounts of pure and elegant manner, had been Chancellor of England, and the familiar intimate of Henry VIII, by whose order he was beheaded in 1535.“ Myne ain good doughter, our Lorde be thanked I am in good helthe of bodye, and in good lull of minde: and of secular thynges I no more desyer so I haue. I beseche hym make you all mery in the hope of heauen.

And such thynges as I somewhat longed to talke with you all, refering the worlde to come, our Lorde put theim into your myndes, as I truste he doth and better to by hys holy spirite: who blesse you and preserue you all. Written wyth a kale by your stamp louing male parent, who in hys pore supplications forgetteth none of you all, nor your baby, nor your nources, nor your good husbandes, nor your good husbandes shrewde wyues, nor your male parents shrewde wyfe neither, nor our other frendes. And therefore menu ye hartely good for lacke of paper. THOMAS MORE, knight. ” — Johnson ‘s Hist. E. Lang.

, p. 42.From More ‘s Description of Richard III. — Probably written about 1520.

“ Richarde the 3rd sonne, of whom we nowe entreate, was in witte and bravery egall with either of them, in bodye and prowesse farre vnder them bothe, small of stature, badly fetured of limmes, croke backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard fauoured of countenance, and such as is in provinces called warlye, in other menne otherwise, he was malicious, wrathfull, enuious, and from afore his birth euer frowarde. Hee was close and secrete, a deep dissimuler, lowlye of counteynaunce, arrogant of bosom — dispitious and cruell, non for euill will alway, but after for ambicion, and either for the suretie and encrease of his estate. Frende and foo was muche what indifferent, where his aduauntage grew, he spared no adult males deathe, whose life withstoode his intent. He slew with his owne handes king Henry the sixt, being captive in the Tower.

From his description of Fortune, written about the twelvemonth 1500.“ Fortune is stately, solemne, prowde, and hye: And rychesse geueth, to haue seruyce hence. The nedy begger catcheth an half peny: Some manne a thousaude pounde, some lesse some more. But for all that she kepeth euer in shop, From euery manne some parcell of his wyll, That he may pray therefore and function her styll.

Some manne hath good, but chyldren hath he none. Some manne hath both, but he can acquire none wellness. Some hath Al thre, but vp to honor trone, Can he non crape, by no maner of stelth. To some she sendeth chyldren, ryches, welthe, Honour, woorshyp, and reuerence all hys lyfe: But yet she pyncheth hym with a shrewde married woman. ” SIR THOMAS MORE.5.

ENGLISH OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 5. ENGLISH OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURYExample for the reign of Henry VII, who was crowned on Bosworth field, 1485, and who died in 1509.“ Wherefor and forasmoche as we haue sent for our derrest wif, and for our derrest moder, to come unto us, and that we wold hold your advis and counsail besides in soche affairs as we haue to doo for the subduying of the rebelles, we praie you, that, yeving your due attendaunce vppon our said derrest wif and lady moder, ye come with thaym unto us ; non neglecting herof as ye intent to doo us plaisir. Yeven undre our signett, at our Castell of Kenelworth, the xiii daie of Maye. ” — HENRY VII: Letter to the Earl of Ormond: Bucke ‘s Classical Gram.

, p. 147.Example for the short reign of Richard III, — from 1485 to 1483.“ Right clergyman fader in God, right trusty and right wel-beloved, we grete yow wele, and wol and charge you that under oure greate seale, being in your warde, ye do do in all haist our lettres of announcement independently to be directed unto the shirrefs of everie countie within this oure royaume. ” — RICHARD III: Letter to his Chancellor.Reign of Edward IV, — from 1483 to 1461.

— Example written in 1463.“ Forasmoche as we by frogmans meanes bene credebly enformed and undarstand for certyne, that owr greate adversary Henry, naminge hym selfe kynge of England, by the maliceous counseyle and exitacion of Margaret his married woman, namynge hir selfe queane of England, have conspired, ” & amp ; c. — EDWARD IV: Letter of Privy Seal.

Examples for the reign of Henry VI, — from 1461 back to 1422.“ When Nembroth [ i.e. Nimrod ] by Might, for his ain Glorye, made and integrate the first Realme, and subduyd it to hymself by Tyrannye, he would non hold it governyd by any other Rule or Lawe, but by his ain Will ; by which and for Thursday ‘ accomplishment thereof he made it. And therefor, though he had therefore made a Realme, holy Scripture denyd to cal hym a Kyng, Quia Rex dicitur a Regendo ; Whych thyng he did non, but oppressyd the Peoples by Myght. ” — SIR JOHN FORTESCUE.Example from Lydgate, a poetical Monk, who died in 1440.

“ Our life here short of humor the great dulnes The heuy soule troubled with trauayle, And of memorye the glasyng brotelnes, Drede and vncunning haue made a strong batail With werines my spirite to assayle, And with their subtil craping in most queint Hath made my spirit in makyng for to feint. ” JOHN LYDGATE: Fall of Princes, Book III, Prol.Example for the reign of Henry V, — from 1422 back to 1413.“ I wolle that the Duc of Orliance be kept stille withyn the Castil of Pontefret, with owte goyng to Robertis topographic point, or to any other disport, it is better he lak his disport so we were disceyved. Of all the remanant dothe as ye thenketh. ” — Letter of HENRY V.Example for the reign of Henry IV, — from 1413 back to 1400.“ Right heigh and myghty Prynce, my goode and gracious Lorde, — I recommaund me to you every bit lowly as I kan or may with all my pouer hert, desiryng to hier goode and gracious tydynges of your adoring astate and public assistance.

” — LORD GREY: Letter to the Prince of Wales: Bucke ‘s Classical Gram. , p. 145.6.

ENGLISH OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY 6. ENGLISH OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURYReign of Richard II, 1400 dorsum to 1377. — Example written in 1391. “ Lytel Lowys my sonne, I perceve good by certaine groundss thyne abylyte to lerne scyences, touching nombres and proporcions, and besides good consydre I thy besye supplication in especyal to lerne the tretyse of the astrolabye. Than for every bit moche as a philosopher saithe, he wrapeth hym in his frende, that condiscendeth to the ryghtfull supplications of his frende: therefore I have given the a sufficient astrolabye for oure orizont, compowned after the latitude of Oxenforde: vpon the whiche by meditacion of this lytell tretise, I purpose to teche the a certame nombre of decisions, pertainynge to this same instrument.

” — GEOFFREY CHAUCER: Of the Astrolabe.Example written about 1385 — to be compared with that of 1555, on p. 87.“ And therefore this companie of Muses iblamed casten wrothly the chere dounward to the yerth, and proving by rednesse their shame, thei passeden sorowfully the thresholde. And I of whom the sight plounged in teres was darked, so that I ne might non cognize what that adult female was, of so Imperial aucthoritie, I woxe all abashed and stonied, and project my sight doune to the yerth, and began still for to stay what she would doen subsequently. ” — CHAUCER: Version from Boethius: Johnson ‘s Hist. of E. L.

, p. 29.Poetic Example — likely written before 1380.“ O Socrates, 1000 stedfast title-holder ; She ne might nevir be thy turmentour, Thou nevir dreddist her subjugation, Ne in her chere foundin 1000 no favor, Thou knewe wele the disceipt of her coloring material, And that her moste worship is for to lie, I knowe her eke a false dissimulour, For eventually Fortune I doe defie. ” — CHAUCER.Reign of Edward III, 1377 to 1327. — Example written about 1360.

“ And eke full ofte a littell skare Vpon a banke, er work forces be ware, Let in the streme, whiche with gret peine, If any adult male it shall restreine. Where lawe failleth, errour groweth ; He is non wise, who that ne troweth. ” — SIRJOHN GOWER.Example from Mandeville, the English traveller-written in 1356.“ And this sterre that is toward the Northe, that wee clepen the load sterre, ne apperethe non to hem.

For whiche cause, work forces may wel perceyve, that the lond and the see ben of rownde schapp and forme. For the partie of the celestial sphere schewethe in o contree, that schewethe non in another contree. And work forces may well preven be experience and sotyle compassement of wytt, that zif a adult male fond transitions be schippes, that wolde go to serchen the universe, work forces mighte go be schippe all aboute the universe, and aboven and benethen. The whiche thing I prove therefore, aftre that I have seyn. * * * Be the whiche I seye zou certeynly, that work forces may envirowne alle the erthe of alle the universe, as wel undre as aboven, and turnen azen to his contree, that hadde companye and schippynge and conduyt: and alle weyes he scholde fynde work forces, londes, and yles, ALSs wel as in this contree.

” — SIR JOHN MANDEVILLE ; Johnson ‘s Hist. of E. L. , p. 26.

Example from Rob. Langland ‘s “ Vision of Pierce Ploughman, ” 1350.“ In the somer season, When hot was the Sun, I shope me into shroubs, As I a shepe were ; In wont as an harmet, Vnholy of werkes, Went wyde in this universe Wonders to heare.

”Description of a Ship-referred to the reign of Edward II: 1327-1307.“ Such Ne saw they ne’er none, For it was so cheery begone, Every nayle with gold ygrave, Of pure gold was his sklave, Her mast was of tusk, Of samyte her sayle wytly, Her robes all of whyte sylk, As whyte as of all time was ony mylke. The baronial ship was without With apparels of gold spread about And her loft and her wyndlace All of gold depaynted was. ” ANONYMOUS: Bucke ‘s Gram. , p. 143.From an Elegy on Edward I, who reigned boulder clay 1307 from 1272.“ Thah myocardial infarction tonge were made of stel, Ant min herte yzote of bandeaus, The goodness myht Y ne’er telle, That with kyng Edward was: Kyng, as thou art cleped conquerour, In uch battaille 1000 hadest crowbar ; God bringe thi soule to the honor, That of all time wes ant of all time ys.

Now is Edward of Carnavan Kyng of Engelond Al aplyght ; God lete him ne’er be worse adult male Then his fader, ne lasse myht, To holden his pore work forces to ryht, Ant understonde good counsail, Al Engelond for to wysse and dyht ; Of gode knyhtes darh him nout fail. ” ANON. : Percy ‘s Reliques, Vol.

two, p. 10.7. ENGLISH OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY 7. ENGLISH OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURYReign of Henry III, 1272 to 1216. — Example from an old lay entitled Richard of Almaigne ; which Percy says was “ made by one of the disciples of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, shortly after the conflict of Lewes, which was fought, May 14, 1264. ” — Percy ‘s Reliques, Vol. two.

“ Sitteth alle stille, and herkneth to me ; The kyng of Almaigne, Bi myocardial infarction leaute, Thritti thousent lb askede he For Te make the urines in the countre, Ant so he dude more. Richard, thah 1000 be of all time trichard, Trichten shalt thou ne’er more. ”In the undermentioned illustrations, I substitute Roman letters for the Saxon. At this period, we find the characters assorted.

The manner here is that which Johnson calls “ a sort of intermediate enunciation, neither Saxon nor English. ”Of these historical rimes, by Robert of Gloucester, the Doctor gives us more than two 100 lines ; but he dates them no further than to state, that the writer “ is placed by the criticks in the 13th century. ” — Hist. of Eng.

Lang. , p. 24.

“ Alfred thys baronial adult male, as in the ger of grace he nom Eygte hondred and syxty and tuelue the kyndom. Arst he adde at Rome ybe, and, vor ys grete wysdom, The Catholic Pope Leo hym blessede, Tho he thuder com, And the kynges croune of hys lond, that in this lond intestine Y: And he led hym to be kyng, ar he kyng were y Wyoming. An he was kyng of Engelond, of alle that ther come, That vorst therefore ylad was of the Catholic Pope of Rome, An suththe other after hym of the erchebyssopes echon.

”“ Clere he was god ynou, and intestine, as me telleth me, He was more than ten ger old, ar he couthe ys abece. Ac ys gode moder ofte smale gyftes hym tok, Vor to byleue other pie, and loky on Y boke. So that by por clergye Y rygt lawes he wonde, That neuere er nere y huffy to gouerny ys lond. ” ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER: Johnson ‘s Hist. of E.

L. , p. 25.Reign of John, 1216 dorsum to 1199. — Subject of Christ ‘s Crucifixion.“ I syke when Y scorch for sorewe that y Se When Y with wypinge bihold upon the tre, Ant se Jhesu the suete Y hert blod for-lete For the love of me ; Ys woundes waxy wete, thei wepen, still and mete, Marie reweth me. ” ANON. : Bucke ‘s Gram.


ENGLISH, OR ANGLO-SAXON, OF THE TWELFTH CENTURYReign of Richard I, 1199 dorsum to 1189. — Owl and Nightingale.“ Ich was in one sumere dale, In one snive digele picket, I herde ich hold grete narrative, An hule and one Luscinia megarhynchos. That braid was stif I stare and strong, Sum wile softe I lud among. An other once more other sval I let that wole mod ut Al.

I either seide of otheres custe, That alere worste that hello wuste I hure and I hure of others songe Hi clasp plaidung futhe stronge. ” ANON. : Bucke ‘s Gram.

, p. 142.Reign of Henry II, 1189 dorsum to 1154. — Example dated 1180.“ And of alle than folke The wuneden ther on folde, Wes thisses landes folke Leodene hendest itald ; And alswa the wimmen Wunliche on heowen. ” GODRIC: Bucke ‘s Gram. , p. 141.

Example from the Saxon Chronicle, written about 1160.“ Micel hadde Henri male monarch gadered gold & A ; syluer, and na god ne dide me for his saule thar of. Tha the male monarch Stephne to Engla-land com, tha macod he his gadering set Oxene-ford, & A ; thar he nam the biscop Roger of Seres-beri, and Alexander biscop of Lincoln, & A ; te Canceler Roger hife neues, & A ; dide aelle in prisun, til hello jafen up here palaces. Tha the suikes undergaeton that he milde adult male was & A ; softe & A ; God, & A ; na justise ne dide ; tha diden hello alle wunder.

” See Johnson ‘s Hist. of the Eng. Language, p. 22.Reign of Stephen, 1154 to 1135.

— Example written about this clip.“ Fur in see Bi west Spaygne. Is a lond ihone Cokaygne. There nis lond under heuenriche.

Of wel of godnis hit iliche. Thoy paradis be miri and briyt. Cokaygne is of fairer siyt. What is ther in paradis. Bot grasse and flure and greneris. Thoy ther be ioi and gret dute. Ther nis met bot anlic frute.

Ther nis Halle bure no bench. Bot watir Manis thurst to slake. ” ANON. : Johnson ‘s Hist. Eng. Lang. , p.

23.Reign of Henry I, 1135 to 1100. — Part of an Anglo-Saxon Hymn.“ Heuene & A ; erthe & A ; all that is, Biloken is on his honde. He deth al that his wille is, On sea and European Union on londe.

He is orde albuten orde. And ende albuten ende. He one is eure on eche stede, Wende wer thu wende.He is buuen us and binethen, Biuoren and ec bihind. Se adult male that Godes wille deth, He mai hine aihwar uinde.Eche runic letter he iherth, And wot eche dede. He durh sighth eches ithanc, Wai hwat sel us to interpret.Se adult male neure nele Don God, Ne neure God lif leden, Er deth & A ; dom come to his dure, He mai him sore adreden.

Hunger & A ; thurst, hete & A ; chele, Ecthe and all unhelthe, Durh deth com on this midelard, And other uniselthe.Ne mai non herte hit ithenche, Ne no tunge telle, Hu muchele pinum and hu uele, Bieth inne helle.Louie God mid ure hierte, And mid all ure mihte, And ure emcristene swo us self, Swo us lereth drihte. ” ANON. : Johnson ‘s Hist. Eng. Lang. , p.


[ 50 ] LUCE, CAP. I.“ On Herodes dagum Iudea cynincges, was sum sacred on naman Zacharias, of Abian melody: and his wif was of Aarones dohtrum, and hyre nama waas Elizabeth.Sothlice hig waron butu rihtwise beforan Gode, gangende on eallum his bebodum and rihtwisnessum, butan wrohte.And hig nafdon nan bearn, fortham the Elizabeth was unberende ; and hy on hyra dagum butu forth-eodun.

Sothlice was geworden tha Zacharias hys sacerdhades breac on his gewrixles endebyrdnesse beforan Gode,Efter gewunan thas sacerdhades hlotes, he eode that he his offrunge sette, tha he on Godes tempel eode.Eall werod thas folces was ute gebiddende on thare offrunge timan.Tha atywde him Drihtnes engel standende on thas weofodes swithran healfe.Tha weard Zacharias gedrefed that geseonde, and him ege onhreas.Tha cwath Se engel him to, Ne ondrad thu the Zacharias ; fortham thin ben is gehyred, and thin wif Elizabeth the sunu centh, and thu nemst hys naman Johannes. ” — Saxon Gospels.

“ In the dayes of Eroude kyng of Judee ther was a prest Zacarye by name, of the kind of Abia: and his wyf was of the doughtris of Aaron, and hir name was Elizabeth.And bothe weren juste bifore God, goynge in alle the maundementis and justifyingis of the Lord, withouten playnt.And thei hadden no kid, for Elizabeth was bareyn ; and bothe weren of greet age in her dayes.And it befel that whanne Zacarye schould make the office of presthod in the ordir of his class to fore God,Aftir the usage of the presthood, he wente Forth by batch, and entride into the temple to encensen.And al the battalion of the puple was without Forth and preyede in the our of encensying.And an aungel of the Lord apperide to him, and stood on the right half of the auter of encense. 12.

And Zacarye seyinge was afrayed, and drede fel upon him.And the aungel sayde to him, Zacarye, drede 1000 non ; for thy preier is herd, and Elizabeth thi wif schal bere to thee a sone, and his name schal be clepid Jon. ”Wickliffe ‘s Bible, 1380.

English. — seventeenth Century.LUKE, CHAP. I.“ There was in the yearss of Herod the male monarch of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the class of Abia: and his married woman was of the girls of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth.And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and regulations of the Lord, blameless.And they had no kid, because that Elisabeth was barren ; and they both were now good stricken in old ages.

And it came to go through, that while he executed the priest ‘s office before God in the order of his class,Harmonizing to the usage of the priest ‘s office, his batch was to fire incense when he went into the temple of the Lord.And the whole battalion of the people were praying without at the clip of incense.And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the communion table of incense.And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fright fell upon him.But the angel said unto him, Fear non, Zacharias ; for thy supplication is heard, and thy married woman Elisabeth shall bear thee a boy, and thou shall name his name John. ”Common Bible, 1610.See Dr. Johnson ‘s History of the English Language, in his Quarto Dictionary.10. Anglo-saxon IN THE TIME OF KING ALFRED 10. Anglo-saxon IN THE TIME OF KING ALFREDAlfred the Great, who was the youngest boy of Ethelwolf, male monarch of the West Saxons, succeeded to the Crown on the decease of his brother Ethelred, in the twelvemonth 871, being so twenty-two old ages old. He had barely clip to go to the funeral of his brother, before he was called to the field to support his state against the Danes. After a reign of more than 28 old ages, rendered singularly glorious by great accomplishments under hard fortunes, he died universally lamented, on the 28th of October, A. D. 900. By this prince the university of Oxford was founded, and provided with able instructors from the continent. His ain great proficiency in acquisition, and his earnest attempts for its publicity, organize a dramatic contrast with the ignorance which prevailed before. “ In the 9th century, throughout the whole land of the West Saxons, no adult male could be found who was scholar plenty to teach the immature male monarch Alfred, so a kid, even in the first elements of reading: so that he was in his 12th twelvemonth before he could call the letters of the alphabet. When that renowned prince ascended the throne, he made it his survey to pull his people out of the sloth and stupidity in which they lay ; and became, as much by his ain illustration as by the encouragement he gave to learned work forces, the great refinisher of humanistic disciplines in his rules. ” — Life of Bacon.Conclusion ConclusionThe linguistic communication of eulogium must frequently be taken with some suspension: it does non normally present things in their due proportions. How far the foregoing citation is true, I will non feign to state ; but what is called “ the resurgence of acquisition, ” must non be supposed to hold begun at so early a period as that of Alfred. The followers is a brief specimen of the linguistic communication in which that great adult male wrote ; but, printed in Saxon characters, it would look still less like English.“ On thare tide the Gotan of Siththiu magthe with Romana rice gewin upahofon. and mith heora cyningum. Radgota and Eallerica waron hatne. Romane burig abracon. and eall Italia rice that is betwux tham muntum and Sicilia tham ealonde in anwald gerehton. and tha agter tham foresprecenan cyningum Theodric feng to tham ilcan rice se Theodric was Amulinga. he wass Cristen. theah he on tham Arrianiscan gedwolan durhwunode. He gehet Romanum his freondscype. swa that hello mostan heora ealdrichta wyrthe beon. ” — KING ALFRED: Johnson ‘s Hist. of E. L. , 4to Dict. , p. 17.LITERATURE LITERATUREBrill, E. and Mooney, R. J. ( 1997 ) , & # 8216 ; An overview of empirical natural linguistic communication processing ‘ , in AI Magazine, 18 ( 4 ) : 13-24.Chomsky, N. ( 1957 ) , Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.Curme, G. O. ( 1955 ) , English Grammar. New York: Barnes and Noble.Dowty, D. R. , Karttunen, L. and Zwicky, A. M. ( explosive detection systems ) ( 1985 ) , Natural Language Parsing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Garside, R. ( 1986 ) , ‘The CLAWS word-tagging system ‘ , in R. Garside,G. Leech and G. Sampson ( explosive detection systems ) The Computational Analysis of English. Harlow: Longman.Gazdar, G. and Mellish, C. ( 1989 ) , Natural Language Processing in POP-11. Reading, UK: Addison-Wesley.Georgiev, H. ( 1976 ) , ‘Automatic acknowledgment of verbal and nominal word groups in Bulgarian texts ‘ , in t.a. information, Revue International du traitement automatique du langage, 2, 17-24.Georgiev, H. ( 1991 ) , ‘English Algorithmic Grammar ‘ , in Applied Computer Translation, Vol. 1, No. 3, 29-48.Georgiev, H. ( 1993a ) , ‘Syntparse, package plan for parsing of English texts ‘ , presentation at the Joint Inter-Agency Meeting on Computer-assisted Terminology and Translation, The United Nations, Geneva.Georgiev, H. ( 1993b ) , ‘Syntcheck, a computing machine package plan for orthographical and grammatical spell-checking of English texts ‘ , presentation at the Joint Inter-Agency Meeting on Computer-assisted Terminology and Translation, The United Nations, Geneva.Georgiev, H. ( 1994 & # 8212 ; 2001 ) , Softhesaurus, English Electronic Lexicon, produced and marketed by LANGSOFT, Sprachlernmittel, Switzerland ; platform: DOS/ Windows.Georgiev, H. ( 1996-2001a ) , Syntcheck, a computing machine package plan for orthographical and grammatical spell-checking of German texts, produced and marketed by LANGSOFT, Sprachlernmittel, Switzerland ; platform: DOS/Windows.Georgiev, H. ( 1996-200lb ) , Syntparse, package plan for parsing of German texts, produced and marketed by LANGSOFT, Sprachlernmittel, Switzerland ; platform: DOS/Windows.Georgiev, H. ( 1997 & # 8212 ; 2001a ) , Syntcheck, a computing machine package plan for orthographical and grammatical spell-checking of Gallic texts, produced and marketed by LANGSOFT, Sprachlernmittel, Switzerland ; platform: DOS/Windows.Georgiev, H. ( 1997-2001b ) , Syntparse, package plan for parsing of Gallic texts, produced and marketed by LANGSOFT, Sprachlernmittel, Switzerland ; platform: DOS/Windows.


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