Carbohydrate Manipulation To Optimize Performance Biology Essay

This article is analysing one of the macronutrients, saccharide, which contribute in increasing public presentation in endurance contest race and supply energy for retrieving, particularly in the first 6 yearss before the race and 3 yearss after the race.

Marathon race is an endurance race which challenge human organic structure ‘s extreme. Proper nutrition is really of import in increasing the public presentation. The ultimate end of this article is seeking to hold a better public presentation in endurance contest race by manipulate suited sum of carbohydrate consumption.To decently and accurately turn to the saccharide needed in between the race period, an jock is selected as the mark examiner. This jock is an Asiatic, male, 35 old ages old, 70 kgs, and with 5 old ages of long tally experiences.Marathon is the 42.195 kilometer long race which challenge smugglers ‘ physical capacities and endurances.

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The public presentations are fluctuated really much for many smugglers from the universe records of 2:03:59 to the allowed clip limited, like 6 hours. Some of them even drop out before making the finish line. There are several factors impacting the public presentation in endurance contest, like strength, animal starch militias, etc. From the point of position of nutrition, by pull stringsing the saccharide consumption, the public presentation will be improved because it increasing the animal starch militias.


Macronutrients are carbohydrate, free fatso acid and protein. They are the chief energy beginnings for prolong exercisings, like endurance contest. What is saccharide?“ Carbohydrates can be subdivided into several classs based on the figure of sugar units present. A monosaccharide consists of one sugar unit such as glucose or fruit sugar.

A disaccharide ( e.g. , sucrose, lactose, and maltose ) consists of two sugar units. Oligosaccharides, incorporating 3 to 10 sugar units, are frequently breakdown merchandises of polyoses, which contain more than 10 sugar units. Oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose are found in little sums in leguminous plants. Examples of polyoses include amylum and animal starch, which are the storage signifiers of saccharides in workss and animate beings, severally.

” ( FAO/WHO, 1998 ) .It is a molecular which has C, H and O atoms, the ration between H and O is 2:1. For illustration, the milk sugar is C12H22O11. The common presentation signifier of saccharide is CHO. There are several basic maps of the saccharide, like as the energy fuel for musculus contractions, aid in fat metamorphosis, as organic structure construction, etc. This article will concentrate on the function of as energy fuel.

Carbohydrate stored in organic structure as musculus animal starch and liver animal starch and interrupt down into blood glucose which circulated through the whole organic structure. As animal starch is limited, its modesty is non adequate for running a endurance contest.“ For a 70-kg endurance contest smuggler, the entire energy required to run a endurance contest, , is about 2950 kcal. ” ( Rapoport I. B.

, 2010 October )Like Rapoport B said, for a 70kg smuggler, the entire energy needed is around 2950 kcal, which is around 740 gms of saccharide.“ Estimated carbohydrate burning exceeded estimated animal starch shops in active musculus and liver ( 475 g = 375 g ( musculus ) + 100 g ( liver ) ] . Therefore, entire organic structure animal starch shops were made available for burning. All categories of energy substrates participate, but saccharide, non lipid, is the primary fuel for endurance contest running. ” ( Brien O.

, Viguie M. J. , C. A. , Mazzeo R. S. , and Brooks G.

A. , 1993, pp. 1009-1017 )As shown in the above abstract, the animal starch storages are around 475 gms. That means all the animal starch shops in the active musculus and liver are non plenty for a endurance contest, there are still 265 gms of CHO outstanding theoretically. Let ‘s assumed there are still 300 gms of CHO needed earlier participated in the race. Therefore carbohydrate burden is introduced and recommended for endurance contest smugglers.

SIX yearss before the race

Carbohydrate burden is a scheme which used by endurance jock to maximise the storage of animal starch in musculuss. Normally there are two stages in making the saccharide burden. In the first stage, that is the 4th to 6th yearss before the competition, the jock are seeking to consume the animal starch storages every bit much as possible by holding less CHO nutrient and make some exercising to further consume the animal starch.

In the 2nd stage, that is 3 yearss before the race, the jock is seeking to hold much high CHO nutrient as possible.There are different version of saccharide lading done by some researches. Some of them emphasis on restrict or wholly deplete animal starch storage before overload the saccharide consumption while others are ignore the depletion period of animal starch but still overload the saccharide consumption. For the jock in this article, it is suggested to hold a moderate saccharide burden. By experience, a moderate saccharide consumption could diminish the possibility of acquiring discomfort gastro-intestinal jobs every bit good as acquiring hurts. The ground is with reasonably low animal starch storage, the unsusceptibility system is weak and some uncomfortableness feeling will happen, like dizzy, etc. In those state of affairss, it is easier in acquiring injured.

Therefore, for this jock, it is recommended to hold a low saccharide consumption during the depletion period with the ratio of CHO: Other macronutrients is 20 % : 80 % . And during the overloading period, the ratio of CHO: Other macronutrients is 80 % : 20 % .“ Research has besides shown that jocks involved in high volume intense preparation ( e.g. , 3-6 hours per twenty-four hours of intense preparation in 1-2 exercises for 5-6 yearss per hebdomad ) may necessitate to devour 8-10 grams/day of saccharide ( i.e.

, 400 – 1,500 grams/day for 50 – 150 kilogram jocks ) in order to keep musculus animal starch degrees. This would be tantamount to devouring 0.5 – 2.0 kilogram of spaghetti. Preferably, the bulk of dietetic saccharide should come from complex saccharides with a low to chair glycemic index ( e.g. , whole grains, veggies, fruit, etc ) . However, since it is physically hard to devour that much saccharide per twenty-four hours when an jock is involved in intense preparation, many dieticians and the athleticss nutrition specializer recommend that athletes consume concentrated saccharide juices/drinks and/or consume high saccharide addendums to run into carbohydrate demands.

” ( Kreider B. R. , Wilborn D. C. , et al. , 2010 February )As the endurance contest is an endurance and medium or high intense race, the recommended saccharide consumption is around 8-10g/kg of organic structure weight per twenty-four hours during the saccharide overloading yearss. And as this jock is an Asiatic, it is believed that it needs a small spot lower saccharide, so it is suggested to take 8g/kg CHO per twenty-four hours. That is about 560 gm CHO within the 3 twenty-four hours repasts.

Glycemic index is the index that indicate the comparative glycemic effects of saccharides.“ Per gm of saccharide, nutrients with a high glycemic index ( GI ) produce a higher extremum in postprandial blood glucose and a greater overall blood glucose response during the first 2 H after ingestion than make nutrients with a low GI. ” ( Jenkins D, Wolever T, Taylor R, et al.

, 1981 )As suggested by the abstract above, low to medium GI nutrient with complex saccharide is better for soaking up. And some high CHO fluid or drink is assisting in lading the CHO. Below is some GI values cite nutrient, and is better for choose for overloading the CHO.




95 % CI

Breakfast cereals with 150 milliliters semi-skimmed milk

Miniaˆ?wheats59.47.345.1 – 73.

7Riceaˆ?pops79.76.267.5 – 91.9Branflakesaˆ?76.35.

465.7 – 86.9Preciseaˆ?58.84.450.

2 – 67.4Fruitaˆ? & A ; fiber61.24.352.8 – 69.



Breads with 5 g oleo ( 25 g available saccharide )

Wholemealaˆ?70.911.947.6 – 94.

2Hovisaˆ?wholemeal74.28.158.3 – 132.


4 – 123.4Waitroseaˆ?stoneground wholemeal65.713.140.

0 – 91.4Vogelsaˆ?sunflower & A ; barley70.410.450.

0 – 90.8Whiteaˆ?pitta67.116.135.

5 – 98.7


Breads with 10 g oleo ( 50 g available saccharide )

Hovisaˆ?wholemeal67.68.551.1 – 118.7Hovisaˆ?white75.111.951.

8 – 126.9


Pasta, rice and murphies with 10 g oleo

Penneaˆ? – 52.2Eggaˆ?tagliatelle53.55.

442.9 – 64.1Basmatiaˆ?rice42.

88.326.5 – 59.1Basmatiaˆ?easy-cook rice68.47.753.

3 – 83.5Americanaˆ?easy-cook rice49.412.

225.5 – 73.3Bakedaˆ?old white murphy with tegument694.859.6 – 78.4Bakedaˆ?old white murphy without tegument98.28.

381.9 – 114.5Boiledaˆ?old white murphy95.

99.577.3 – 114.5Boiledaˆ?new murphy79.815.

449.6 – 110.0Boiledaˆ?charlotte murphy80.810.759.8 – 101.8Instantaˆ?mashed murphy94.

815.764.0 – 125.

6Mashedaˆ?Desiree murphy102.412.877.

3 – 127.5( Aston M. L, Gambell M. J.

, Lee M. D. , Bryant P. S. and Jebb A. S. , 2009 Jun )“ In decision, we have demonstrated that modified CHO-loading protocols that begin with an thorough depletion exercising achieve greater musculus animal starch concentrations that will prevail longer than nondepletion protocols ( e.g.

, developing taper ) . ” ( Goforth W. H. , Laurent D.

, et al. , pp. 2010 December )As preparation taper will increase the animal starch storage in musculus, so it is suggested to hold a 30 proceedingss of running with less strength.

The Race Day

In the race twenty-four hours, usually the endurance contest starts really early, so the first thing to make is wake up earlier.

And it is suggested to hold a breakfast at rental two hours before the race started.It is the last opportunity to overload the CHO consumption before the race. It is really important have a suited breakfast. The sum of nutrient and the clip are really of import.

“ When drawn-out exercising will be performed, such as a endurance contest, taking saccharides instantly before or during exercising is besides an effectual method of bettering endurance. Under such conditions, it is desirable for the jock to consume monosaccharoses or oligosaccharides, because these are quickly absorbed and transported to the peripheral tissues. On the other manus, consumption of saccharides inhibits the debasement of fat, which is another energy substrate, by exciting insulin secernment. This leads to damage of energy production via lipid metamorphosis and accelerates glycolysis as alternate energy production pathway. As a consequence, the ingestion of musculus animal starch will increase, and the intramuscular pH will diminish due to increased lactic acid production, which may take to impairment of musculus contraction. Therefore, it is necessary to consume saccharides that will non suppress lipid metamorphosis. It has been suggested that addendums incorporating fruit sugar, which cause less stimulation of insulin secernment and are improbable to suppress lipolysis, instead than common saccharides such as glucose and saccharose, may be better for bettering endurance.

”( Aoi W. , Naito Y.and Yoshikawa T. , 2006 )Although holding high CHO nutrient will excite the insulin secernment, it is non a job if there is adequate clip for the digestion system to devour the CHO nutrient and cut down the insulin to the normal degree. Therefore, it is restricted to hold any nutrient with the 2 hours before the race.

For this jock, it is suggested to intake 2g/kg of CHO of the organic structure weight, that is about 140 gm of CHO. It is moderate sum of CHO consumption in some researches.The below tabular array shows the recommendation of the breakfast and when to take it. It is assumed that the endurance contest is started at 6:20am, and it stopped eating after 4:20am.




3:30amTwo pieces of staff of life with Jam64g


Sport Drink ( Pocari, 150ml )10g4:00amTwo boiled murphies30g


One Banana25g


Sport Drink ( Pocari, 150ml )10gEntire139gDuring the endurance contest, animal starch and free fatso acid are the chief fuel for this endurance race. It is assumed that this jock will keep his steady province in most of the clip.

It that steady province, the per centum of firing animal starch and free fatso acid is about 50 % : 50 % . And in this instance, the animal starch storage of this jock is estimated to provides him to run for approximately 35km. That means there are still 7km which needed excess CHO consumption.The below CHO consumption is recommended.

The honey is recommended as it has high content of fruit sugar which will non excite the insulin secernment.




At about the 30km, 300m before the H2O base.One PowerBar Energy Gel27gAt about the 35km, 300m before the H2O base.One-half of the PwerBar Energy Bar22gAt about the 40km, 300m before the H2O base.Honey ( diluted with H2O ) ( 100ml )10gEntire59g

After the race

Replenish CHO is really of import in the first 24 hours, particularly in the first 2 hours.It is recommended to refill 6-10g/kg of organic structure weight, that is around 420- 700g of CHO for this jock with 24 hours.

Because it is after the race, there is no public presentation issue, the lone issue is about the fast recovery of the organic structure, so it is recommended for this jock to make up one’s mind how much to take of the CHO every bit long as it is with the 420 -700g scope. In the first 2 hours, it is suggested to take 1-1.5g/kg of high CHO every hr.

That is around 70-105g of CHO.


Recommended Carbohydrate Intake

Rapid recovery after developing session or multi-day competition, particularly when there is less than 8 H until following sessionIntake of 1-1.5 g/kg BM for every hr in the early phases of recovery after exercising, lending to a entire consumption of 6-10 g/kg BM over 24 hours( Minehan M. and AIS Sports Nutrition, 2004 )


Marathon is a challenge which need proper nutrition for better public presentation.

One of the parts of the macronutrients is the saccharide. By manipulated how much of CHO need to be taken and when to be taken, the public presentation is most likely will be increased.


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