Cancer are affected by this disease annually,
Canceris the growth of a tumor in the human body due to the uncontrolled division of abnormalcells. There are two kinds of tumors, benign and malignant. A benign tumor isthe one which is localized to one specific part of the body. It grows in thatpart but does not infect its neighboring body parts.
Malignant tumor on theother hand is the one which spreads into the whole body and infects all bodyparts it can reach to. A malignant tumor is considered as cancer. This tumorbasically propagates through a phenomenon called metastasis. In metastasis, thecancer cells break from the tumor they originate from, and spread into the bodyby travelling into the bloodstream and forming tumor in other organs. There areseveral reasons for the formation of tumors. They can be caused by the genemutation in the cells after birth.
Gene mutations can occur due to severalreasons including radiation and environmental factors. Another reason for theformation of tumors are mutated genes which are inherited from the parents. Thesegenes may not indicate the mutation in parents but they might be expressed in thephenotype of the offspring. Thus propagating the spread of cancer throughinheritance.Breastcancer is the creation of a benign tumor in the breast area of a human being.This tumor takes the shape of a lump or an irregularity in the breast area. Thetumor only becomes cancer when metastasis occurs to turn that tumor into amalignant one.
Of all cancers in females, breast cancer makes up to 22.90%. “1,000,000 women are affected by thisdisease annually, and another 300,000 women die annually as a result.”1. Breast Cancer onset is affected by environmental and geographical factors.The risk for Asian women for developing this disease is at the age of 40 whilethe age of 60 for American women. “Theincidence rate among women younger than 25 and older than 79 is 1/20,000 and1/9, respectively.”2.
Thus the chances of getting breast cancerdiffers in individuals even if the gene is inherited.”BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the two mostcommon genes in autosomal dominant and high penetrance form of breast cancer.”3.BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are responsible for the creation of Tumor Suppressor GeneProtein.
Like its name suggests this protein is required by the body torestrain any tumors that may be growing in the body. Now if this suppressorprotein is not produced in an adequate amount, any cancerous cells willmultiply to create a benign tumor. “BRCA1gene is located on chr17q.
“4, and “BRCA2 gene is located on chr13q.” 5. If these genesare recessive, the tumor suppressor gene will not be produced and will lead toan increased risk of breast cancer. An event called Loss of Heterozygosity canoccur in these genes. If one of the gene is inherited recessive, the person isconsidered heterozygous for this gene.
Due to this heterozygosity, the creationof TSG will be impaired and cells will easily develop tumors. “Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 andBRCA2 are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.”6.
Due to this fact, ifthe offspring has a heterozygous genotype, the disease would be expressed inthe phenotype. In some cases, the parents might not even have cancer due todifference of cancer onset in each individual. If an individual has a BRCA1 orBRCA2 which has been altered, the chance of the offspring receiving the variantis 50%. Breast cancer can be inherited byany individual with parents with a mutated gene from BRCA1 or BRCA2. Severaltechniques are available to determine whether the offspring will have themutated gene or not. “Withgeneralization of this result to BRCA2 gene, screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genesshould be proposed to all patients with a family history of breast cancer.”7.There are many techniques available today which can be used to prevent thebreast cancer including prophylacticbilateral mastectomy and Chemoprevention.