Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary Cancer are affected by this disease annually,

Cancer are affected by this disease annually,

is the growth of a tumor in the human body due to the uncontrolled division of abnormal
cells. There are two kinds of tumors, benign and malignant. A benign tumor is
the one which is localized to one specific part of the body. It grows in that
part but does not infect its neighboring body parts. Malignant tumor on the
other hand is the one which spreads into the whole body and infects all body
parts it can reach to. A malignant tumor is considered as cancer. This tumor
basically propagates through a phenomenon called metastasis. In metastasis, the
cancer cells break from the tumor they originate from, and spread into the body
by travelling into the bloodstream and forming tumor in other organs. There are
several reasons for the formation of tumors. They can be caused by the gene
mutation in the cells after birth. Gene mutations can occur due to several
reasons including radiation and environmental factors. Another reason for the
formation of tumors are mutated genes which are inherited from the parents. These
genes may not indicate the mutation in parents but they might be expressed in the
phenotype of the offspring. Thus propagating the spread of cancer through

cancer is the creation of a benign tumor in the breast area of a human being.
This tumor takes the shape of a lump or an irregularity in the breast area. The
tumor only becomes cancer when metastasis occurs to turn that tumor into a
malignant one. Of all cancers in females, breast cancer makes up to 22.90%. “1,000,000 women are affected by this
disease annually, and another 300,000 women die annually as a result.”
1. Breast Cancer onset is affected by environmental and geographical factors.
The risk for Asian women for developing this disease is at the age of 40 while
the age of 60 for American women. “The
incidence rate among women younger than 25 and older than 79 is 1/20,000 and
1/9, respectively.”2. Thus the chances of getting breast cancer
differs in individuals even if the gene is inherited.

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“BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the two most
common genes in autosomal dominant and high penetrance form of breast cancer.”3.
BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are responsible for the creation of Tumor Suppressor Gene
Protein. Like its name suggests this protein is required by the body to
restrain any tumors that may be growing in the body. Now if this suppressor
protein is not produced in an adequate amount, any cancerous cells will
multiply to create a benign tumor. “BRCA1
gene is located on chr17q.”4, and “BRCA2 gene is located on chr13q.” 5. If these genes
are recessive, the tumor suppressor gene will not be produced and will lead to
an increased risk of breast cancer. An event called Loss of Heterozygosity can
occur in these genes. If one of the gene is inherited recessive, the person is
considered heterozygous for this gene. Due to this heterozygosity, the creation
of TSG will be impaired and cells will easily develop tumors. “Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and
BRCA2 are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.”6. Due to this fact, if
the offspring has a heterozygous genotype, the disease would be expressed in
the phenotype. In some cases, the parents might not even have cancer due to
difference of cancer onset in each individual. If an individual has a BRCA1 or
BRCA2 which has been altered, the chance of the offspring receiving the variant
is 50%.

            Breast cancer can be inherited by
any individual with parents with a mutated gene from BRCA1 or BRCA2. Several
techniques are available to determine whether the offspring will have the
mutated gene or not. “With
generalization of this result to BRCA2 gene, screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes
should be proposed to all patients with a family history of breast cancer.”7.
There are many techniques available today which can be used to prevent the
breast cancer including prophylactic
bilateral mastectomy and Chemoprevention.