Buffers ion is shown. The buffered solution
Buffers areknown to counteract the change in ph when too much or little hydrogen orhydroxide ions are added and removed from the blood.
The buffers consist ofweak acids and its conjugated base. An example would be the carbonic acid-bicarbonatebuffer that steps in to maintain pH values (Figure 4). The protons added to thesolution are dissociated from some of the weak acid molecules of the buffer,converting to the base of the buffer. The following reaction describes theinvolvement of carbonic acid, with the involvement of water, to show the acidand base balance.On theright, the acid and base reaction is displayed. The water would act as a base,but it is not initiated in the reaction, and the carbonic acid (H2CO3)as the acid.
The conjugate acid is H3O+, if water is present, andbicarbonate ion (HCO3) as the conjugated base. In this case, onlythe disassociation of the H+ ion is shown. The buffered solution – which is theblood – is dependent on the ratio of CO2 and HCO3-present in the blood.
The ratio is constant because the buffer components havea high concentration to the amount of H+ added. Thus, the relative changebetween CO2 and HCO3- concentration is tinywhen H+ is added to the blood due to metabolic processes. This is because of thelarge concentration HCO3- takes up in the blood. Usually,the favoured pH value for the buffering to occur is between 5.1 and 7.
1;however, the body maintains a pH of 7.4, which is significantly far from theoptimal value. In this case, the added protons become vigorous for the bufferto act upon alone. With this situation, the lungs act by removing excess CO2from the blood, through rapid breathing, to help raise the blood pH byshifting the equilibrium. During intensive exercising, the heart rate becomesvery rapid, this gives little time for CO2 to be transferred foroxygen – raising the concentration of CO2 which then reacts withwater to produce more H2CO3. The increase in carbonicacid dissociates protons which in return raises the pH of the blood. The quick breaths taken by the lung shift theequilibrium in both reactions and maintain the Ph required for homeostasis. WhenpH is needed to be decreased the kidneys work efficiently to reabsorb HCO3-ions out of the urine, shifting the equilibrium, and raising the pH value.
Thisis done through the filtration process in the excretory system. The kidneysreabsorb HCO3- out of the filtrate and back into theblood for the pH levels to increase. Adding more bicarbonate ions to the bloodwill put stress to the reaction, following Le Chateleir’s Principle, and thereaction will compensate for the change and create more carbonic acid, whichwill balance the Ph. An imbalance, leading to acidosis or alkalosis, can beinitiated from renal failure. The individual urinates less frequently and hasan flood of bicarbonate being reabsorbed or pushed out of the system – misbalancingthe pH levels of the body; thus, disturbing homeostasis.
There are many otherbuffers that contribute to the shift in equilibrium and maintaining the pH ofthe blood, the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer has vast importance for beingwell known in the homeostasis component. When asound is detected, the wave travels down the auditory canal, which is in theouter ear, striking the eardrum with a vibration that travels to the middle ear(Figure 5). The middle ear contains the ossicles: malleus, incus, stapes, thatmagnify the amplitude of the soundwaves. The sound travels from the ossiclesthrough membranes to the cochlea of the inner ear. This is filled with fluid,known as endolymph. The inner ear surface contains hair cells, attached tocircles of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which carry initiated soundaction potentials to the brain.
Motion is detected through three semicircular canalsin each direction, which are attached to the endolymph fluid and hair cells. Anyshift detected by the canals moves the walls connected to the fluid, causingthe hair cells to stimulate impulses to the brain. Connected to the endolymphchambers, is another section, called utriculus, where otoliths, or ear stones,reside and contribute to movement detections of the body. Dizziness is a symptom that can bemisdiagnosed many times leading to serious complications with the patient. The situationis assessed wrongly because it is not easy to directly measure the sensation individualsfeel.
Dizziness is the overlapping of multiple sensations, filling the brainwith different action potentials. Vestibular disorder is known to be asensation of spinning; it is accompanied by nystagmus where the eyes arerapidly jerking with movement. This makes the patient feel as if thesurrounding environment is constantly moving, giving the consciousness of beingdizzy. Individuals that have vestibular disorders experience motion sicknessand imbalance; a sensation of falling or leaning to one side occurs to theindividual. Non-vestibular dizziness is when a spinning sensation occurs insidethe head, but no nystagmus occurs and the environment does not move. With thisdisorder, patients are giddy and describe to be “floating” they are seen to belightheaded.
Relative to non-vestibular dizziness, vertigo is a phenomenon thatis continuous episodic disorder. The difference lies within the environmentalmovements, non-vestibular disorder is accompanied by movements and targeted visuals,while vertigo is aggravated by head movements. Examples of vertigo stimulationoccurs with crowded areas – such as, driving in traffic or shopping at a busystore. There are many different types of cases surrounding vertigo: CentralForm and Peripheral. The first is known as peripheral vertigo, which is themost severe cases than the central form of vertigo.
Peripheral vertigo isclosely related to auditory symptoms – tinnitus or hearing loss – because ofthe common disorders that trigger this problem. Commonly known, BPPV (BenignParaxysmal Positional Vertigo) is a condition that causes the otoliths to getloose into the fluid, with their movement it leads to the sensation ofspinning. Central form of vertigo does not occur with warnings and disappear,the conditions is much advanced to the point where walking and standing becomesdifficult.
The spontaneous eye movements are prolong and become difficult tostop, hearing problems are rare, but severe nausea, weakness, and headaches dooccur. It is necessary to locate the central point of the problem with thesecases to measure the length of the dizziness and work further towards thesolution.