Being reduction of streets, and degeneration of

Being no exception, Malaysia is experiencing theurban sprawl phenomenon which is confronting the global urban world today. Urbanand social modernization has caused proliferation and concentration of urbanservices and consequently, it has caused population increase and architecturaldensification. Expansion of buildings, reduction of streets, and degenerationof urban plazas has started to diminish the space for public activity, which asa result has led to the loss of quality of the city.  Most of the public sees open spaces as emptyspaces between buildings such as streets, plazas, and parks that only providemovement pathways and outdoor activities.

A study of transitional, orintermediary spaces, will provide an analogy for the understanding and creationof in-between space as dynamic public spaces that are essential component forthe urbanites to form a city fabric and its character. These spaces are often consideredas green nucleus in the city. Therefore, this study is to explore the conditionof the city’s public space to respond to the knowledge of the design of qualitytransitional spaces in current scenario.1.1             Problem StatementIt is commonly known that most of the big citiesin the world are experiencing urbanisation with the growing number of concretejungle. Rapid development results in rapid growth in population and number ofhigh rise buildings. Urban problems such as architectural densification,traffic problems and lack of green space has led to both direct and indirect impactson the quality of life as a whole. Hence, the exploration of transitional spacebetween the interior and exterior architecture is essential to understand itsrelation to people’s psychology.

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This research will investigate the concept andcharacteristics of transitional spaces especially in urban environment. Thescope of the research is to explore the architectural elements that define therole and quality of transitional spaces. The research will be a comparativestudy by choosing case studies chosen based on their distinct designcharacteristic that reflects to the design elements of transitional spaces andlocated in a dense populated urban area. 1.2             Objectives The intention of transitional spaces are toprovide a break from two spaces or two activities. The aim of this research isto explore the relation between transitional spaces and how it affects humanpsychology. The interest and objectives in this research derives from a desire:i)                   To understand the concept and characteristicsof  transitional spaces ii)                 To explore the architectural elements thatdefine the role and quality of transitional spaces iii)               To discover the quality of public open spaces astransitional space in an urban environment in Malaysia 1.

3             Research Questionsi)                   What is the concept and characteristics oftransitional spaces especially in urban context?ii)                 What are the architectural elements that definethe role and quality of transitional spaces?iii)               How are the quality of public open spaces astransitional space in an urban environment in Malaysia? 1.4             Significance of Study Transition spaces interconnect spaces by linkingor separating different types of space. In urban context, transition spacesshould create a sense of movement that will create more social engagementopportunities.The aim of this study is to be able to providean architectural description of the topic.

In a way, this research will beprovide a thorough guideline for designers to develop new ways of designingpublic open space as transitional space by exploring case studies that hasalready exist and to explore the ways for improving the architectural spacequality between the inside and outside.    CHAPTER TwoLITERATURE REVIEW2.1             IntroductionSpace is the key element in architecture anddiscussions about space is a complex subject. Spatial relation is one of themost vital part in architectural design, affecting quality of the livingenvironment. Most big cities experiencing urbanisation and existing buildingsare often lacking certain functions that are currently needed for qualityliving environment since they have been designed in the past. Urban sprawl hasturned architecture into a series of urban problems, such as architecturaldensification, traffic problems and lack of green space. Thus, transitionalspace can be considered as a necessary part of urban components that havesignificant influence on human dimension; whether on the behaviour or theactivity of user. *Rosni, N.

A., & Noor, A. P. D. N. M.(2016). A REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON URBAN SPRAWL: ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS ANDCAUSES.

 Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management, 6(1).2.2             Understanding Transitional SpaceAccording to Kristic et al. (2013), variationsof spatial layers in the architectural structure of a building can createparticular spatial relations and an architectural space that can be defined asboth an inner space or as an outer space, or can be called as ‘in-betweenspace”. In architectural context, transitional space is a minor space betweenthe interior and exterior space, which is a medium area for the building andthe natural environment.

It is a space of experience between the inner and theouter worlds; an intermediate or a third space. The effect of it is to mergethe two opposite space and blur the boundary of them, and make the building andenvironment a continuous space.*Krsti?, H., Trentin, A., & Jovanovi?, G.(2016). Interior-exterior connection in architectural design based on the incorporationof spatial in between layers.

Study of four architectural projects. Spatium,(36), 84-91.2.2.1       Concept and theories of transitional space The idea of ‘in between’ is a concept proposed by Kisho Kurokawa inhis book ‘The Philosophy of Symbiosis’ which explains how such space existsbetween the exterior and interior space that takes the effect of transiting theseparated area, and promote the continuity of the whole public space. 11.

1 The theory from Kisho Kurokawa 2.2.2       Transitional space in traditional buildingsIn Japanese traditional resident, transitionalspace is also essential. Kurokawa believed that the gray space could create alot of possibilities. This gray space can be known as transitional spaces.Theyhave a particular name for this area, “engawa”. Traditional Japan tenantsprefer to stay here for dinner, leisure, enjoying the environment of thecourtyards, resting, even sleeping.

The engawa possesses its own meaning as athird type of space, an intermediary space, in addition to interior andexterior space. 2.2.3       Transitional space in modern buildings* Kisho Kurokawa Saitama MuseumKisho Kurokawa, in awareness of this suppressedarchitectural characteristic, he presented his “symbiosis” theory toexplain his architectural philosophy. He applied such theory into a lot ofprojects, for example the Saitama Prefectural Museum of Modern Art. The museumis built in the center of a park, he designed the entrance intermediary spaceto create a more versatile public area. This is the attempt of modernization inorient space. This design makes the space inside and outside can get symbiotic.

2.3             Typology of transitional space in architectureIn real life, there is a regular pattern for thepeople’s choice of public area. People don’t like overcrowded environment,either empty environment. Under the idea of symbiosis, the inner space andouter space of the construction are both important. Shahlaei et al (2015) hasconcluded the approaches to defining connection between inside and outside inall architectural types are:·        Connection:-          A two dimensional element in external dividerthat provide sensual or physical access, like a door or window. The line ofseparation is solid and the in-between is an object not a space.-         Limitations:opportunity to take advantage of outside environment and this issue candecrease qualities of living spaces.·        Conflation of inside and outside:-         Theline between inside and outside is been faded so separation between inside andoutside is defocused, for example slide away glass doors.

–         Limitations:requires specific climate that most parts of Iran doesn’t compete with that.Also Iranian life style, cultural issues and emphasis on privacy and “seewithout being seen” make this approach not suitable as a common solution.·        Creation of in-between spaces:-         Canbe a proper solution for achieving qualities of inside and outside at the sametime and at a same place, and to increase user’s satisfaction.-         Helpto overcome low-quality living spaces crisis in some architectural type. *Shahlaei,A., & Mohajeri, M. (2015).

In-Between Space, Dialectic of Inside andOutside in Architecture. International Journal of Architecture and UrbanDevelopment, 5(3), 73-80.    2.3.1        Role and quality               * El-Mokadem, A.A. E.

F., Sallam, I., & El-Samaty, E. H.

M. S. Human Dimension as anEffective Aspect in the Perception of Transition Spaces 2.3.2       Design elementsTransitional spaces play a crucial role thatcovers the relationship between human behaviour and properties of urban places.2.3.2.

1  Aspart of the function2.3.2.2  Aspart of the landscape2.3.

2.3  Asbuffer zone between buildings  *Lee, Y. M., Kim, S. K., & Moon, H. N.

(2013).Intermediary Spaces Linking Urban Space to Buildings: Functions and UserSatisfaction in Three Mixed-Use Complexes. Journal of SustainableDevelopment, 6(9), 12.* Harle, N.E., & Ribevald, R.

(1993). Roles and Meanings of Transitional Spaces: SomeAspects for Consideration. Arch. & Comport./Arch. and Behav, 9(3). 2.4             Case study2.4.1       As part of function2.4.1.1   KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur 2.4.2       As part of Landscape2.4.2.1  SentulPark, Kuala Lumpur2.4.3       As buffer zone between buildings2.4.3.1   Jalan Hang Kasturi, Kuala Lumpur

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