B) complete copy of blockchain ledger. Figure
B) Device types:Device can be classifies based on storage capacity,computational capacity, functionality. Based on the above parameters there arethree types of devices 1) Light peers 2) Standard Peers 3) Peer exchange. Lightpeers are as the name implies have low storage capacity, and less computationalpower.
In the IOT system they are basically sensors like raspberry pie,sens-hat etc. They are basically used in system monitoring any abnormality inthe system also manage the inventory. They are used for sending and receivingmessages.
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For example if there is any update in software in the device it themessages are been sent over by light peers. Standard peers basically highercomputational capacity than light peers and more storage space. They possesscapability for making transaction and assist light peers in file sharing alongwith performing some light analytics and computations. Peer exchanges they arehigh end devices possessing heavy computation powers. They are been taken careby entities hosting market places. They have capability to hold a complete copyof blockchain ledger. Figure 4 shows the types of devicesand the capapbalities they posess such as light peer carries out messaging fileassist in file transfer, standard peer csrries out basic level of deviceanalytics, transaction verification.
Peer exchnge connectss the device with theoutside world makes analytics and negotiation in from the market place. Figure 4:Types of devices (Source: Empoweringthe edge: Practical insights on a decentralized Internet of things)C) Implementing Blockchain to IOT:Asmentioned above upon implementing Blockchain to IOT can open new possibilities.Product can be registered right from final assembly to final stage where it issold from dealer to the customer. This registered product has its own uniqueidentity. This life cycle of a product stored in the blockchain can it selvesforming a trusted database.
Main aim is to build a smart device to detect acomponent failure, check warranty on the data stored in the blockchain. Make aservice request using a peer based review and select the best retailer/servicecompany. Unlike bitcoin blockchain does not really require to mining processfor approval as IOT blockchain uses “Ethereum” this uses proof of stake.Product life cycle can better understood using the following example. In theFigure 5 A is manufacturing B is neighboring port C is destination port D isDistributor’s facility E is retailer’s sight. The process of sending containerform manufacturer to the retailer involves several stakeholders and checks.Each stake holder has their own copy of ledger it keeps on updatingsimultaneously.
I simple terms asset tracking can be thought of as one shareddatabase which keeps on updating keeping the track of the product in averifiable cryptographically. Assume that container has tracker installed in itwhen two stakeholders meet each other let’s say at B where and B are presentthe transaction can be signed automatically without third party input and the addedinput can be updated in the leger (assuming each stake holder has a GSM/LTEmodule). Another verification that can be used is the time stamp method wherethe time stamp is been made at each and every point and the data is bee updatedin the ledger. Figure5: Asset tracking (Source: Blockchains and SmartContracts for?the Internet of Things)IV) Used cases:ADEPTPOC has been used in a wide range of application like mobile light devices likewearables and smart washer always connected this concept can be furtherextended to giant industrial machines to smallest chipsets. A semi-automaticwasher capable of maintaining its inventory by it selves and reordering theconsumables by it selves without the involvement of third part making it highlysecure and reliable. Three main functions are being described in the whitepaper for the ADEPT by IBM that includes 1) Reordering consumable 2) Deviceservice 3) Power bartering. Each of these are described below.
Reorderingconsumables: IBM has worked with Samsung to develop W9000 washer with adetergent dispenser which automatically detects when the supply runs low. Asand when it detects the lowered supply it will follow the following procedureit will primarily query the peer list and check if it has any pre- existingcontract or not this is checked in the blockchain ledger. Reorder request ismade placed to the retailer and they check the contract is valid or not viablockchain. Upon confirmation payment is received and order confirmation issent to the device owner. This concept can also be applied to large machines thisis the very first step been taken to an automated decentralized approach.
Deviceservicing: Every device in the ledger is been assigned an id and stored in the formof hash. The ledger includes the product life cycle as mentioned above topicIII-C. Several sensors are being installed in the device which monitors thesystem performance. Any abnormality detected if the device needs service thedevice can call for service by itself. Steps involved in service ordering areas follows.
Any abnormality detected triggers the service request. Washer runsa check in its own ledger for the warranty in blockchain ledger. Device querieswith other peers for the service request selects a service vendor and placesthe request. Upon receiving the service, the request, the service vendor runs awarranty status check of the device in the block chain.
Once confirmed servicerequest is approved and the device owner and the service provider modify thetime mutually.