Australia a nation’s residents. (Mierlo et al.
Australia possesses social inequality due to the unevendistribution of its resources.
The social inequality within Australia will be measuredthrough earnings, where the dispersion of labour market incomes will definesocial classes. This will be further explored through Karl Marx’s social theoryof class, sociologists measure of inequality, and the consequences ofinequality. Earnings inequality within Australia can be identifiedthrough Karl Marx’s social theory of class. Marx distinguished class by itsmode of production, such as the division of labour and earnings. The workingclass is “exploited? and alienated from work produced by the capitalistorganisation that seeks profit (Andrew 1983: 577). These categories areproduced when repeated transactions across the boundary both regularly yieldnet advantages to those on one side and reproduce the boundary.
For example,Australian mine owners don’t pay the hewers the value of their efforts.Instead, they use the profit to reinforce the boundary between management andworkers. This alienation produces an inequality between the classes where powerand control are controlled by the upper-class society (Tilly 2005: 183). Theunequal dispersion of labour market incomes within Australia has consequentlycreated social inequality. Sociologists measure social inequality through multiplequalitative and quantitative methods.
The most widely used aggregated measureof dispersion is Gini Coefficient which represents the wealth distribution of anation’s residents. (Mierlo et al. 2016: 3). HILDA survey data show thatAustralia’s Gini coefficient was 0.303 in 2000-01 and 0.
296 in 2014-15(University of Melbourne 2016: 29-37). Although the Gini coefficient identifiedAustralia’s overall household income inequality has barely changed, the ABS hasidentified that wealth distribution of Australia’s residents still indicates adifference in social classes. The ABS also identified the labour market hasbecome more socially unequal through a sample (University of Melbourne 2016:29-37). Therefore, sociologist’s measurements of inequality attest to thenotion that the dispersion of labour market incomes define social classes andreiterate social inequality within Australia. Australia possesses a wide variety of value-producingresources that serve as bases of earnings inequality. Resources such as thefinancial capital currently remain under the control of a small network ofpersons, compare to Australia as a whole. This control has created unparalleledpotency in the production of inequality by those who control it and those whodo not (Tilly 2005: 184-188). For example, the working class have smalleraccess to technology, education and information due to earnings inequality whichultimately prevents them access to the same opportunities, qualifications andearnings than those who control the financial capital (Tilly 2005: 188).
Tilly(2005) states that without access to these bases, persons are limited to socialchange and are subject to social inequality (2005:188). Consequently,Australia’s uneven distribution of earnings continues to create the socialclasses and the earnings inequality. Social inequality within Australia produces aninequality of labour and earnings between the classes where power is controlledby the upper-class society.
Sociologist’s measurements of inequality attest tothe notion that the dispersion of labour market incomes define social classesand reiterate social inequality within Australia. Consequently, the workingclass are unable to break free from their inequality because their inequalityprevents them access to the same opportunities as the upper-class society.Therefore, there is social inequality in Australia and it has socialconsequences, as seen with earnings inequality.