Assessment of Heavy Metal in Human Blood of Individual Residing in the Vicinity of Nullah Lai Essay

Appraisal of heavy metal in human blood of single residing in the locality of Nullah Lai

1. Introduction

Heavy metals are omnipresent in environment due to use in scope of anthropogenetic activities. The major beginning of heavy metals in environment are industries ; these include pharmaceutical, oil Millss, chemicals ( organic and inorganic ) , nutrient industries, fabric, ceramics, steel and leather tanning ( Sial et al.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

, 2006 ) . Heavy metals which largely constitute industrial and municipal discharge include Cd, Co, Cr Cu, Zn, Ni, arsenic, Fe, lead and quicksilver ( Omu, 2009 ; Lone, 2008 ) .Populating near the contaminated country consequences in high exposure to the pollutants which lead to accretion of heavy metal in open persons ( Bakheet et al. , 2013 ) .

Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals causes taint of all environmental compartments i.e. dirt, H2O and biology. Ground H2O pollution occurs due to wastewater and leachate from dumpsite infiltration to the land ( Biswas et al. , 2010 ) . Anthropogenetic beginnings of hint elements in H2O include fabrication and municipal effluent ; these pollutants are finally deposited in dirt.

The depletion of metals accumulated in dirt occurs by leaching, eroding and works consumption ( Kabata-Pendias, 2010 ) . The accretion of heavy metal in dirt and workss pose human wellness hazard as consumption of contaminations by nutrient concatenation tract is one of the of import exposure beginning ( Khan et al 2008 ) . Soil atom consumption and dust inspiration is direct exposure tract for persons populating near contaminated site ( Cambra et al.

, 1999 ; Pelfrene et al. , 2013 ) .Heavy metal toxicity is because of its long half-lives, non-biodegradable nature, belongings to roll up in organic structure portion and deficiency of proper mechanism for their riddance from organic structure ( Arora et al. , 2008 ) . Chronic exposure to Cd and Cr causes kidney diseases, lung harm and delicate castanetss ( Martin and Griswold, 2009 ) . Environmental exposure to low concentration of lead is related with neurologic defects and development lacks ( Nriagu, 1988 ) . Cadmium exposure causes terrible wellness effects and leads to kidney malfunctioning, different types of respiratory jobs, skeletal and bone upsets ( Jarup 2003 ) .

Many diseases are associated with Cu toxicity. When imbibing H2O is continuously used incorporating Cu it may do emesis, sickness, abdominal hurting, diarrhoea, respiratory and kidney jobs and liver failure ( Davanzo et al. , 2004 ; Srisvatava et al. , 2005 ; World Health Organization, 1998 ) . High degree exposure of Zn besides cause different diseases in worlds such as respiratory jobs due to inspiration of Zn exhausts ; cuticular and optic jobs. When sum of Zn exceeds from allowable bounds in imbibing H2O it may do sickness, diarrhoea, purging and it may impact liver, kidney, bosom and cardinal nervous system ( Nriagu, 2007 ) . Lead is environmental neurotoxicant and has a capableness to interfere with biochemical reactions happening within cell and can bring forth changes in different variety meats ( Saraymen et al.

, 1998 ; Jarosinska et al. , 2004 ; Mansouri and Cauli, 2009 ) . High concentrations of lead in human organic structure can do anemia i.e. Fe lack, terrible perturbations of the cardinal nervous and cardiovascular systems ( Jarup 2003 ) .Excess exposure and soaking up of manganese leads to toxicity and inauspicious wellness effects. It leads to press lack, harm to nervous system, psychological alterations, tegument diseases and different type of malignant neoplastic diseases.

Adverse effects of Ni are on respiratory piece of land doing lung malignant neoplastic disease or lung redness ( K. D Brouwere et al. , 2012 ) . Prolonged exposure to nickel causes dermis jobs and the most common is eczema.

Chronic Fe poisoning occurs often associated to familial and metabolic diseases, repeated blood transfusions, and different types of malignant neoplastic disease, bosom jobs, hormonal instability and failing of immune system ( Fraga and Oteiza, 2002 ) .In current survey, heavy metal is analyzed in blood of dwellers populating in the environing country of Nullah Lai, the watercourse fluxing through Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It is extremely contaminated by the industrial and domestic solid and liquid waste from industrial and residential beginnings. The untreated effluents are the major beginning of pollutants or heavy metals in Nullah lai. This unplanned industrial wastewaters discharge is continuously increasing the concentration of heavy metals in Nullah Lai. It carries a immense sum of untreated and incompletely treated sewerage waste from duplicate metropoliss. ( Islam-ul-haq et al. , 2007 ) .

In add-on to industrial beginning, domestic waste is besides lending to increasing concentration of heavy metals in Nullah Lai. All the domestic waste of Rawalpindi and Islamabad is finally discharge in to Nullah Lai. Exposure of persons to heavy metal occurs by use of imbibing H2O ( land H2O which is polluted by ooze of Nullah Lai into land ) and consumption of milk from cattle feeding on Nullah Lai irrigated H2O. Atmospheric pollutants are another beginning of heavy metal taint in the open population. The aim of the survey is to analyse the fluctuation in blood heavy metal content in persons from different selected site, depending on pollution beginning and exposure.

2. Material and Methodology

2.

1 Study Area

The survey country was located at Nullah Lai, a natural watercourse fluxing through the duplicate metropoliss of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Nullah Lai Basin has a catchment country of 234.9( 144.

4in Rawalpindi ) and a length of about 30 kilometer.

The Basin is located between 33°33 ‘ and 33°46 ‘ North and 72°55 ‘ and 73°07 ‘ East. The clime of Rawalpindi is classified as Subtropical Triple Season Moderate Climate Zone, as this country has individual rainfall season from July to September. With the population of about 1.

6 million, Rawalpindi has wastewater coevals of 70 MG daily, 65 % of effluent remains untreated and disposed off in unfastened drains which finally drains into Nullah Lai ( Islam-ul-haq et al. , 2007 ) . This untreated waste leads to heavy metal taint of H2O as the beginning of effluent is domestic and industrial wastewaters from urban countries in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Solid waste dumping into Nullah Lai is another beginning of taint of this watercourse. Groundwater taint ensues as a effect of ooze of Nullah Lai’s H2O into land.

Human exposure to these contaminations occurs when groundwater is utilized for imbibing intents. Another exposure tract is identified as ingestion of milk from cowss which drink H2O from Nullah and devour effluent irrigated harvests.C:UsersAmnaDesktop10358115_661612667242119_434822266_n.</p>
<p>jpg” src=”https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/1095473.003.</p>
<p>jpg”/>Figure 1 Map demoing sample aggregation sitesFor aggregation of blood samples, Nullah Lai was divided into three chief zones i.e. upstream ( Saidpur Kas ) , midstream ( Kahayban-e-Sir Syed and Gawalmandi ) and downstream ( Soan River ) . The blood samples from these four sites were indiscriminately collected. Nullah Lai in upstream part was extremely polluted by domestic waste ( unfastened garbage dumps and domestic effluent ) . Industrial wastewaters along with domestic waste and atmospheric pollution by vehicular emanation contribute to the taint of effluent watercourse in midstream zone.</p>
<p> Most part of H2O making downstream zone constitute of untreated municipal effluent of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.</p>
<h2>2.2 Sample Collection</h2>
<p>Human Blood sample aggregation was done in the locality of Nullah Lai and 20 samples were taken from four selected sites ; five from each site. The persons selected for sample were the occupants in locality of Nullah Lai within the age bound of 18 to 60 old ages and had exposure continuance greater than 12 hours per twenty-four hours. Questionnaire was distributed among participants to garner information related residential conditions, nutrient wont, wellness position and smoke wont.</p>
<p> Venous blood was obtained from each participant by venipuncture. Blood sample was collected in bio tubing incorporating EDTA as decoagulant and after transit to research lab was stored at 4-20 °C. For serum aggregation, blood was collected in serum bio tubing followed by centrifugation at 3000 revolutions per minute for 10 proceedingss. Serum was separated from blood sample and so serum phials were refrigerated at 4-20 °C.</p>
<p><h2>2.3 Sample Analysis</h2>
<p>Acid digestion method was ensured for sample readying for heavy metal analysis. A sum of 1ml Blood sample was added into 6 ml mixture of 67 % azotic acid and H peroxide ( 2:1 ) and this mixture was stayed nightlong for 18-20 hours. Sample mixture was boiled at 180-200 °C for 30-45 proceedingss on hot home base after that it was diluted upto 20ml volume by distilled H2O ( Memon et al. , 2007 ) . For serum digestion, 1ml of serum was added into 10 milliliters azotic acid ( 10 % solution ) .</p>
<p> Heavy metal concentration in blood was determined by atomic soaking up spectrophotometer.</p>
<h2>2.4 QA/QC Samples</h2>
<p>The reagents used during experimental process were of analytical quality grade.The glasswork and plastic bottles used during the experiment were decently rinsed with 10 % HNO3 solution along with distilled H2O. To look into the possible taint by reagents and glasswork, reagent spaces were run after every five samples.</p>
<h2>2.5 Statistical Analysis</h2>
<p>All the informations were statistically presented in the signifier of mean, scope ( maximal and minimal ) and standard divergence. Average values of different heavy metals in three different parts i.</p>
<p>e. upstream, midstream and downstream are compared utilizing ANOVA. The statistical difference among the concentration in these parts is determined by analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) tool utilizing Microsoft Excel. Significance degree was set at 0.05.</p>
<p><h2>3. Result and Discussion</h2>
<p>Chronic exposure to heavy metals can ensue to the accretion of contamination in human existences which lead to heavy metal content in blood. Table 2-5 shows concentration of heavy metal i.e.</p>
<p> Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel and Iron in blood of persons populating in the locality of Nullah Lai. The consequences show that lowest concentration of Cd was observed in the blood of upstream persons with average concentration of 6.37 µg/l ( Range= 3.85-8.24 µg/l ) . Cadmium concentration in blood of midstream and downstream persons has about similar values of 7.99 µg/l ( range=10.9-5.</p>
<p>49 µg/l ) and 8.11 µg/l ( range= 6.35-9.68 µg/l ) severally.</p>
<p> These values are higher than 3.0-3.4 µg/l observed in survey of Watanabe et al. , 1983 where human population is populating in uncontaminated environment. Serum Cd degrees are higher as compared to blood Cd degrees with average concentration of 24.84 µg/l, 38.84 µg/l and 34.03 µg/l in upstream, midstream and downstream severally.</p>
<p> The average concentration of Chromium in these three parts show less fluctuation as the concentration in upstream, midstream and downstream zone is 0.89 µg/l, 0.90 µg/l and 0.78 µg/l severally. The ascertained concentrations are higher than the values of 0.</p>
<p>33 µg/l and 0.48 µg/l in the survey of Jan et al. , 2011 carried at the contaminated country.</p>
<p> Mean concentration of Cr in blood serum of persons in survey country is higher than concentration in blood samples with highest concentration in downstream part with value of 6.63 µg/l whereas midstream and upstream values are 5.28 µg/l and 4.89 µg/l severally.Table 1 Statistical parametric quantities of Cadmium ( µg/l ) in blood of persons populating in locality of Nullah Lai</p>
<table>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td><strong>Upstream</strong></td>
<td><strong>Midstream</strong></td>
<td><strong>Downstream</strong></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Mean</strong></td>
<td>6.</p>
<p>37</td>
<td>24.84</td>
<td>7.98</td>
<td>38.</p>
<p>84</td>
<td>8.11</td>
<td>34.03</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Maximum</strong></td>
<td>8.14</td>
<td>30.32</td>
<td>10.89</td>
<td>50.</p>
<p>29</td>
<td>9.68</td>
<td>37.75</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Minimum</strong></td>
<td>3.85</td>
<td>19.36</td>
<td>5.</p>
<p>49</td>
<td>25.57</td>
<td>6.35</td>
<td>30.</p>
<p>32</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Standard Deviation</strong></td>
<td>1.71</td>
<td>7.75</td>
<td>1.44</td>
<td>8.05</td>
<td>1.29</td>
<td>5.</p>
<p>25</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>Table 2 Concentration of Chromium ( µg/l ) in blood of persons populating in locality of Nullah Lai</p>
<table>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td><strong>Upstream</strong></td>
<td><strong>Midstream</strong></td>
<td><strong>Downstream</strong></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Mean</strong></td>
<td>0.90</td>
<td>4.89</td>
<td>0.902</td>
<td>5.</p>
<p>28</td>
<td>0.78</td>
<td>6.63</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Maximum</strong></td>
<td>1.07</td>
<td>5.92</td>
<td>1.071</td>
<td>7.</p>
<p>21</td>
<td>1.00</td>
<td>6.95</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Minimum</strong></td>
<td>0.73</td>
<td>3.86</td>
<td>0.599</td>
<td>3.73</td>
<td>0.</p>
<p>599</td>
<td>6.30</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Standard Deviation</strong></td>
<td>0.12</td>
<td>1.46</td>
<td>0.</p>
<p>17</td>
<td>1.32</td>
<td>0.21</td>
<td>0.45</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>Nickel concentration is highest in midstream part i.e. 1.53 µg/l with scope of 0.</p>
<p>32 to 2.31 µg/l ; whereas mean concentration in persons in upstream part is 1.30 µg/l ( range= 0.96-1.73 µg/l ) and in downstream part concentration is 1.17 µg/l with scope of 0.45 to 1.</p>
<p>60 µg/l. It is higher than the concentration of Ni of 0.12 µg/l ( Jan et al. , 2011 ) and 0.</p>
<p>9 µg/l ( Minoia et al. , 1990 ) . Nickel concentration in blood serum of upstream, midstream and downstream is 1.94 µg/l, 2.45 µg/l and 1.25 µg/l severally. Average concentration of Fe in blood of upstream samples is 121.34 µg/l which is highest as comparison to midstream and downstream samples with concentration of 103.</p>
<p>47 µg/l and 64.51 µg/l severally. Concentration of Fe is lower in concentration as compared to 310 µg/l in the survey of Jan et al. , 2011. Iron degree in upstream, midstream and downstream are 4.</p>
<p>92 µg/l, 11.94 µg/l and 6.81 µg/l severally. It is observed that heavy metal content in serum is higher than in in blood in instance of Cr, Cd and Ni while for Fe blood has higher concentration of metal as compared to serum.Table 3 Concentration of Nickel ( µg/l ) in blood of persons populating in locality of Nullah Lai</p>
<table>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td><strong>Upstream</strong></td>
<td><strong>Midstream</strong></td>
<td><strong>Downstream</strong></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Mean</strong></td>
<td>1.30</td>
<td>1.</p>
<p>94</td>
<td>1.53</td>
<td>2.45</td>
<td>1.17</td>
<td>1.25</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Maximum</strong></td>
<td>1.73</td>
<td>2.38</td>
<td>2.</p>
<p>31</td>
<td>4.25</td>
<td>1.60</td>
<td>1.27</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Minimum</strong></td>
<td>0.96</td>
<td>1.50</td>
<td>0.</p>
<p>32</td>
<td>1.00</td>
<td>0.45</td>
<td>1.</p>
<p>23</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Standard Deviation</strong></td>
<td>0.332</td>
<td>0.62</td>
<td>0.63</td>
<td>1.22</td>
<td>0.44</td>
<td>0.</p>
<p>03</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>Table 4 Concentration of Iron ( µg/l ) in blood of persons populating in locality of Nullah Lai</p>
<table>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td><strong>Upstream</strong></td>
<td><strong>Midstream</strong></td>
<td><strong>Downstream</strong></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
<td><strong>Blood</strong></td>
<td><strong>Serum</strong></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Mean</strong></td>
<td>121.34</td>
<td>4.92</td>
<td>103.47</td>
<td>11.94</td>
<td>64.51</td>
<td>6.81</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Maximum</strong></td>
<td>177.</p>
<p>24</td>
<td>5.02</td>
<td>169.84</td>
<td>30.10</td>
<td>78.58</td>
<td>7.96</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Minimum</strong></td>
<td>1.96</td>
<td>4.</p>
<p>83</td>
<td>21.24</td>
<td>5.37</td>
<td>45.93</td>
<td>5.66</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><strong>Standard Deviation</strong></td>
<td>69.43</td>
<td>0.</p>
<p>14</td>
<td>44.51</td>
<td>9.18</td>
<td>12.34</td>
<td>1.63</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p><img alt=Figure 2 Mean concentration of heavy metal in blood of persons populating near Nullah LaiDeterioration Of Riverine System By Heavy Metals Environmental Sciences Essay

  • Benefits Of Bioindicators Biomarkers To Scientists Biology Essay
  • Dna Damage Caused By Waterborne Metals Biology Essay
  • Largest Of The Endocrine Glands Biology Essay
  • Flow In An Open Channel Biology Essay
  • x

    Hi!
    I'm Ruth!

    Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

    Check it out