Assessing The Consumer Decision Process Models Commerce Essay

Problem acknowledgment is ever get downing in the purchasing procedure. In this phase, consumers will understand their demands when they want to purchase something. For illustrations, when a consumer needs a auto and he or she will automatically concern of every trade name of auto or do some observation in the main road when the different auto was pass by him or her. After their observation, he or she really understands their demands in their head is Honda City

Information hunt

In this phase, consumer understood their demands and get downing to make information research in internal or external which is cognition, experience and attitude toward the merchandise and the external is friends, relations, web site and booklet. Consumer do information hunt from he or she friend is because they might see or knowledge in the Honda City auto.

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Alternate rating

In this phase, consumer get downing to compare those same scope of auto in the market.

Therefore, consumer go to Honda salesroom to hold a trial thrust and cognize about the Honda City public presentation, quality and seek Honda service ability.

Purchase determination

In this phase, after consumer had evaluate Honda autos and he or she might purchase Honda City due to the public presentation, quality, save fuel, low-cost monetary value and paddle displacement in Honda City and Honda get high quality service award. This is the concluding of determination for him or her.


In this phase of purchase, consumers already go through all the procedure and do their determination to buy Honda City. Therefore, Honda has many traders in Malaysia. Consumers can happen a Honda trader easy to buy their merchandise. The purchase of footings involves the monetary value and method of wage.

For Honda City monetary value is at RM 85,480 and RM 90,480. Interest rate for foreign auto is about 2.7-3.2 % and the first payment you need to pay for 10 % of the auto monetary value. After the method of wage is settle, gross revenues agent necessitate some period to cover with bank with the consumer back uping papers to loan with the bank and after the loan is settle gross revenues agent will inform the client of the auto stock. Most likely is within 2 hebdomads after bank loan is settled client can acquire the auto.


In this instance, after-sales service is really of import for client to go repeat client. Honda City is high involvement merchandise. Therefore, Honda Malaysia offer client who are purchase Honda City for 3 old ages warranty or 100,000km ( whichever comes foremost ) and 6 months free service or 10,000km ( whichever comes foremost ) and 2 old ages warranty or 40,000km ( whichever comes foremost ) for battery every bit good. It can fulfill client for the service.



ExposureOccurs when a stimulation comes within scope of a individual ‘s centripetal receptor nervousnesss.AttentionOccurs when the stimulation is “ seen ”InterpretationThe assignment of intending to the standard esthesiss.

MemoryThe short-run usage of the significance for immediate determination devising or the longer-term keeping of the significance.There will be Honda City ads for perceptual experience in appendix 1. In this ads, I will discourse the psychological nucleus of perceptual experience.

What Honda use the motto as in their perceptual experience is Honda is the power of dreams. Honda City is utilizing there ‘s more to the metropolis than meets the oculus. Other than slogan, Honda City perceptual experience in all the consumers mind is save fuel and paddle displacement because Honda City is utilizing save fuel with 5AT and paddle displacement. Besides that, Honda City have rival merchandise which is Toyota Vios.

These two autos are in same scope. They are besides in low fuel ingestion auto. Honda City utilizing the paddle displacement as their perceptual experience to pull clients. Paddle displacement perceptual experience in the consumers is Formula 1 utilizing paddle displacement to switch cogwheel.Honda can utilize salvage fuel with 5AT and paddle displacement as their merchandise placement to aim clients.

In all of the rivals, Honda City is one of the cheapest autos to hold paddle displacement in their public presentation and engineering.There are a few selling scheme at holla.

Brand name and logo development

Brand name and logo are of import in influences how consumers interpret merchandise characteristics.

Honda come out a motto which is “ The power of dreams ” . Harmonizing to ( Honda website ) , at Honda, everyone is encouraged to show and recognize their dreams for the corporate vision of making a better and brighter hereafter for our following coevals. The significance of this motto can show their trade name name and logo.There are a ads for Honda logo at appendix 2.

Media scheme

Honda is stated in high involved with the merchandise class. In this phase, consumer will travel to considerable problem to procure product-relevant information. Therefore, the sellers must happen media that the mark market is interested in and put the advertisement message in those media.


I will discourse about latent and manifest motivations and mcguire ‘s psychological motivations and use into Honda City ads.

The graph in above are shows that manifest and latent motivations in a purchase determination.Manifest motives- are like consumers really know their demands and wants so they go to Honda show room to look for Honda City.Latent motives- consumer are non truly cognize what is their demands, but they merely rely on their first feeling toward the auto as you can see in the graph. It will show that I ‘m successful and it ‘s a powerful, sexy auto and it will assist do me powerful and sexy. Is about the look from themselves.

Mcguire ‘s psychological motivations

Presents, sellers like to utilize Mcguire ‘s motivations to demo to consumers because of it can demo different motivations in an ads. There are an ads in appendix 3 and I will place what type of mcquire ‘s motivations in the ads is demoing.Need for consistenceFrom the ads that we can see, Honda City with white colour. Some Consumers are utilizing Honda in old auto and now he will merely remain on their belief and he would wish the white colour and wo n’t alter other colour as good.

Need for designationThe Honda City inside the ads shown that who wanted to play in assorted functions. For illustrations, a supervisor who drive Proton before when he was a normal staff but now he acquire promote to supervisor and he want to alter Honda City.Need for lookThis motivation is a motivation that the consumer would wish to demo off through the universe, to his friends. Honda City is high-involvement merchandise so that some people will purchase it and intentionally demo off to their friends. They merely want to show to their friends how rich they is.Need for self-importance defenceThis motives is that consumer may trust on well-known trade names alternatively of seeking other trade names. For illustrations, some consumers are excessively rely on Honda trade name so they could buy this after they see the ads.Need for associationThis demand are develop an relationship from a individual to another individual.

For illustrations, boy survey in college but do n’t hold auto, after male parent saw this ads and he wanted to purchase Honda City to his boy to travel survey intent. Some subjects as “ your childs will love you for it ” in advertizements.



It defined as positive support and negative support. For positive support, a consumer went to Honda show room to seek their service and the auto. Therefore, gross revenues agent provide an best service to the consumers and the consumers feels the service are good and the quality of autos are good so he/she decided to buy it and more likely to choose Honda in the following clip he/she would wish to buy it. For negative support, impolite service toward an consumers will do consumers will non reiterate their trade name in the hereafter.


Sellers create ads in commercial and repetition to demo it 4 in a hebdomads is more utile for client to larn the advertisement message. But if sellers create few ads at the same clip in commercial and repetition to demo it 4 in a hebdomads is non that utile because of client would confound the ads or experience raging for the ads or client will make zipping, zapping or deaf-and-dumb person for the telecasting to jump the ads.


Importance – merchandise information are ever importance for client to be learned. Sellers need to make information to expose the merchandise significance to convey to client. Harmonizing to ( Hawkins Best Coney 2001 ) importance might be driven by built-in involvement in the merchandise or trade name, or might be driven by the demand to do a determination in the close hereafter.Other than that, memory are consist of two constituents which is short-run memory ( STM ) and long-run memory ( LTM ) .

Short-run memory

Sellers create Honda advertizement in some magazine but merely merely for 1 hebdomad. Consumers see the ads are merely in a hebdomad and there are non repeated.

Therefore, it will merely be stored in consumers mind for awhile after they see the ads it will acquire lost from their head. Normally, short-run memory merely shop in head 30-45 seconds.

Long-run memory

Sellers create advertizement in commercial have to maintain on reiterating the ads for many times in a hebdomad and non merely in commercial, they need to set more in other manner such as, magazine, route show to advance their merchandises. If consumers keep on seeing the advertizement, it can hive away in their head for life.

Therefore, when they need the merchandise they would automatically believe about the merchandise and do a determination to purchase of it.


Attitude Component Consistency

Affectional constituent( feelings )Behavioral constituent( response inclinations )Overall attitudeCognitive constituent( beliefs )

Attitude constituent

Attitude is feelings or emotional reactions to an object. In other word, attitude can do positive response and negative response toward an ads that consumer see.

For illustration, beliefs and experiencing about Honda with the good feeling and high quality service toward the Honda trade name. That is positive response for consumers known about Honda but late we can see the intelligence about Honda callback Civic theoretical account from twelvemonth 2003 and elements from 2003-2004 old ages for the ignition interlock mechanism job. That could be negative response for consumers toward Honda trade name. Feelingss are frequently result consumers doing a determination.

Behavioral constituent

Honda is remembering their merchandises for fix with free of coursers.

These behaviours can be reflect that they are seeking to take duty of their merchandise in develop their merchandise to heighten their repute. Therefore, when consumers want to buy Honda they might believe that Honda have many job but since Honda is remembering their merchandises mean that Honda is seeking to develop their merchandise and heighten their safety Oriental, so consumers can be no uncertainty to travel for it.

Cognitive constituent

A consumer belief is a psychological association between a merchandise or trade name and an property or characteristic of that merchandise or trade name. Beliefs are cognitive. For illustrations, Honda get award of high quality service in Malaysia, it can be consumer belief toward their merchandise. And Honda is remembering their merchandise for fixs is their property to be consumer belief every bit good because they are taking duty to mend their merchandise and seeking to heighten their safety Oriental at the hereafter.

Rating for Honda with rivals



Monetary value













































There are some factors may account for incompatibilities:Lack of demandWhen consumers are deficiency of demand for a auto, they wo n’t travel for any information hunt or the ads of the auto. Not merely that, consumers may making zipping, zapping or muffling to jump the ads in commercial.

Lack of abilityAs what I mentioned in above, Honda is in high-involvement merchandises. Therefore, some consumers may non hold the ability to buy it.Failure to see interpersonal influenceConsumers are purchasing something that they are non likely with it because of influenced by their friends.Failure to see situational factorsConsumers are non even known about their finance state of affairs to buy anything that he wants to hold it.Sellers should believe an basic selling schemes used for changing the cognitive construction of a consumer ‘s attitude.

Change beliefs- Honda is seeking to alter consumer ‘s beliefs which are manufacture ego-friendly auto such as Honda loanblend. It can for their client to salvage fuel, to protect green and etc.Shift importance- Honda are major in their advanced design. Now they come out a new design which is concept M is besides called the new Modulo and they utilizing new Mugen organic structure kits for Honda Civic, Accord and Jazz. To do this property more importance to consumers.

Change ideal- The early autos in the universe are all utilizing gasoline and Diesel. Now Honda is seeking to alter the ideal. They are seeking to fabricate more eco-friendly engineering auto to aim client such as Honda loanblend, ( Honda wind in intercrossed, Honda metropolis in intercrossed ) this 2 loanblend will be coming shortly.

Change the behavioural constituent

Honda now had some recalled job which is ignition interlock mechanism job and cause of they are taking their duty to mend their merchandise recalled from clients to heighten their safety Oriental. It could give consumers have a uncertainty to buy Honda. But since Honda get high quality service award, they could draw back some confident from consumers. Other than that, Honda should give trial thrust for client to experience the safety oriental and give some route show to advance to consumer. Sellers can give some free gift after consumers come and have a trial thrust in Honda show room to heighten consumer semen and experience the safety Oriental of Honda merchandises.

Change the affectional constituent

Sellers use 3 basic attacks to straight increase affect:Classical conditioningAs we can cognize Honda is more in advanced design for their merchandise of auto. Honda is come out a new advanced design which is concept M to pull more consumers to wish it.

Affect toward the adSellers could look for famous person in the ads to entreaties increase affect toward the ads or Honda recruit some mold for their Honda show auto,Mere exposureSellers should do repeated the ads in commercial to demo to consumers. For illustrations, consumer merely see the ads in commercial once he wo n’t wish it or take it as a memory but consumer can see the ads in commercial so frequently, he or she will take it as long-run memory and like it.



P- Political FactorsE- Economic FactorsS- Social FactorsT- Technology Factors

Political factors

In early of 1950 old ages, Honda vehicles was introduced to Malaysia by Tan Sri Loh Boon Siew.

He is the 1 noticed the popularity of the Honda when he was in Japan in 1958 and he believed that Honda have a brighten hereafter in Malaysia. Therefore he arranged to run into with Mr. Soichiro Honda. He is Honda laminitis in Japan. End up, he acquire the Honda subordinate in Malaysia in 1958 onward. But due to the Malaysia Honda has overtaken by Toyota as the best-selling auto and Boon Siew Sdn.

Bhd. lost the distributorship to HICOM Malaysia. And Hicom Holdings ( 48 % ) , Honda Motor Co. Ltd.

Japan ( 30 % ) , Boon Siew Sdn. Bhd. ( 19 % ) and Lembaga Tabung Haji ( 3 % ) . As what we can see, Hicom had keeping high portion Honda in Malaysia.

Therefore, Boon Siew Sdn. Bhd. had switched to the assembly and distribution of Hyundai autos from Korea.Political factors include authorities ordinances and legal issues. Every import auto into Malaysia have to run with authorities ordinances. Some illustrations include:revenue enhancement policy


Import Duty: -A A Up to 1799 milliliterA 140 % of CIF ( Cost, Insurance & A ; Freight )A A 1800 milliliter – 1999 milliliterA 170 % of CIFA A 2000 milliliter – 2499 milliliterA 200 % of CIFA A 2500 milliliter – 2999 milliliterA 250 % of CIFA A 3000 milliliter and aboveA 300 % of CIFImport Duty for rider autos with diesel engines is set at a level rate of 120 % of CIF.- Gross saless Tax is calculated based on 10 % of ( CIF + Import Duty charged )There is a revenue enhancement policy in Malaysia for import auto at above.

Economic factors

Economic factors affect the buying power of clients and the house ‘s cost of capital. Some illustrations include:economic growingIncome lifting incomes means that consumer have buying power to pass. Honda City is consider as low-cost monetary value in the scope of Nipponese auto in Malaysia.rising prices ratecost of gasoline support on lifting in Malaysia and Honda have had to suit for the market by presenting more economical autos such as save fuel Honda City and Honda loanblend.

Social factors

Social factors include the demographic and cultural facets of the external microenvironment. These factors affect client demands and the size of possible markets. Some societal factors include:Honda is a taking maker of autos. Therefore they increased desirableness of individualized autos for client easy modified, stylistically.

Desire for metropolis autos. Honda had created an saloon and economic autos such as Honda metropolis.

Technological factors

Technological factors show how the tendency helps the concernClever autos have had to include Satelite Navigation systems etc as criterion, Honda has had to catch this up in their newer theoretical accounts.As you can see at economic factors at above, which is cost of gasoline monetary value support on lifting in Malaysia. Therefore, Honda has been engaged in eco-friendly engineering for a better, more sustainable hereafter. The consequence of the Civic Hybrid is uniting fuel efficiency and eco-friendly engineering with merriment diving.


The definition of civilization is extremely misunderstood and misused, therefore the demand for an account. Now in Malaysia, everyone have their ain auto.

You can see every household have auto. Sometime 1 household has 4 individuals they might be hold more than 4 autos in their household. Therefore, Malaysia civilization was like everyone needs the autos. Other than that, when Malayan think about Honda, they will believe that Honda is high engagement auto and they major on advanced design to mark clients.


Honda in Malaysia have a long clip history since 1958 old ages Tan Sri Loh Boon Siew bring into Malaysia.

Nowadays, you can see Honda auto in everyplace in Malaysia. More people purchase Honda auto in Malaysia mean more Honda trim portion in Malaysia and you can happen Honda trim portion in many fix store. Besides that, more trim portion intend Honda auto value are high. Something really frequently can be heard in what Malayan remark about autos which is Honda and Toyota auto are good back up service, good trim portion stock you can happen in fix store and good 2nd manus value. So that, most of the Malaysian are strongly back up either Honda or Toyota.


In Malaysia, there are few Honda City nine created by some Honda City user such as Honda City proprietors club, team metropolis nine and Honda nine. The intent of the nine is for those people who own their Honda City or others Honda auto to fall in the nine and cognize more people to portion their auto public presentation, auto modify and etc. What I see in their nine is some member will form a tea clip as a meeting in someplace to portion their auto narrative. Other than that, organiser will form a trip for all the members to drive their Honda City travel from a topographic point to a topographic point and have their holiday.


Honda comes out with those voguish sporty designs which target those people who are interesting in modified auto. And utilizing advertisement schemes to pull more peoples to buy it.

Therefore, automatically peoples will utilize word of oral cavity to pass on with others to come and buy it. After a pack of peoples to hold their ain Honda City, they might make a Honda City squad and it merely all the Honda City proprietor can be fall in the nine.

Life style

Presents in Malaysia, most of the people like to go around by utilizing auto alternatively of utilizing public conveyances. Other than that, people excessively depend on auto because of they go everyplace by utilizing auto even they go out for a really short distance topographic point.

Therefore, Honda is categorized as a branded auto which still cans low-cost comparison to NISSAN, BMW, MAZDA and etc. Honda City is the save fuel metropolis auto every bit good so Honda is aiming those average income consumer.

Perceptual function for cars

Cleavage, Targeting and Positioning


Sellers are likely to utilize demographic to section the market through the ripening for Honda.

Honda is aiming the age about 25 and supra, because for this scope of age, they most like advanced design as lone Honda will make and their income is about 3k and above in a month


The proposed targeting people in the age group of 25 and above with a monthly income of RM 3,000 and supra. Because of 25 age and supra have the bulk buying power. Honda metropolis is a save fuel economic auto and who have a paddle displacement map for who more involvement in Formula 1 and who are either officers, family, director and those individual who like to go or any gross revenues seller.


The image that Honda City creates in the head of the clients is save fuel economic, low-cost auto and advanced design. Sellers will look at the perceptual function to heighten their merchandise to aim clients


Appendix 1Appendix 2


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