As is also the countries which there
As time passes by, under the administration of former President Macapagal, overseas contract worker became overseas Filipino worker (OFW). However, according to Lane (1992) she stated, The willingness of the migrants to work overseas is necessary but not sufficient condition for international migration… but labor exporting governments still enthusiastically support overseas contract work since it is a major source of foreign capital.
Migration is not only a personal decision but also due to the failure of the development policies to provide adequate living and employment structures. Furthermore, the social and cultural association of women with housework often emerges as a fundamental shaping influence on female migration. The patriarchal ideologies that proclaim the superiority of the women in the domestic sphere and promote the idea that they have the responsibility for the housework have influenced many social and economic policies (Smith, 1999).From 1990s although working overseas is considered alternative action, the lack of policies and economic structure of the government to provide decent and permanent livelihood to Filipino is one of the reasons why they choose to leave the country. Since 1991 to 1995, as reported by Department of Labor and Employment (1999), there are 3.
5 million Filipino OCW. From this data, two thousand are under the legal process and sixty percent of this are Filipina. After 1999, the number of OCW reached 7.29 million distributed in 187 countries and destination. According to statistical data of OFW, there are 2,083.517 OFW in United States.
Few of many countries which there are numerous OCW are in Saudi Arabia (855, 230), Malaysia (594,682), Canada (302,172), Australia (202,223) Japan (197,701), Hong Kong (160,484), Taiwan (141,505), Italy (121,319) and Singapore (120,154). As stated in Philippine Oversea Employment Agency (POEA, 2006) and OFW (2006), this is also the countries which there are great number of Filipina overseas workers.As specified by DOLE (1999) it is reported there are increasing rate of Filipina overseas workers, from 12 percent in 1975 to 47 percent in 1987 to 58 percent in 1995 and to 64 percent in 1999. DOLE expect that in 2018 there is still increasing rate of Filipina overseas workers. According to Go (1997), there is a steadily increasing of Filipina OFW because of the in demand offer of domestic workers in other countries especially into 20th century. As stated in Philippine Oversea Employment Agency (POEA) in 2005 there are 47,493 OFW in Europe and 75 percent of this number are Filipina with age ranging from 25 to 29 and from the recent statistic data of Surveyon Overseas Filipinos (2015), there were generally more women overseas workers at an estimated total of 1.250 million workers than the estimated total of 1.197 million male workers.