APSA Code of Ethics and New York State Public Officers Law Code of Ethics, Compared and Contrasted Essay

      Codes of ethics provide guides to actions from which accountability or answering to higher authority may be demanded as a result. This paper will attempt to support this proposition as it seeks to compare and contrast the American Political Science Association (APSA) Code of Ethics and the New York State Public Officers Law Code of Ethics. This will further describe the differences between the two approaches on prescribing administrators accountability.       Both of codes do regulate acts and omissions of the people that are subjects to them.  They are also similar in trying to influence their subjects to their defined standards by prescribing administrative accountability of the subject persons. The New York code has state employees and officers (New York State Commission on Public Integrity, 2008) as subjects while that APSA has the political scientists who may include teachers, professors and students as subjects (APSA, 2008).       The two codes however differ in the certain aspects. Since the New York code appears to regulate and has jurisdiction over state public officers in New York, then the jurisdiction may be limited as compare with the APSA code which regulates all members of the association, wherever they may be.

  The APSA could even help in the protection of human rights of scholar that are non-American and are found in other countries (APSA, 2008).  Its members need not be public officers by may possibly include New York state employees and officers if they so quality. The second code has therefore a wider coverage.      As to prescribing administrative accountability, it may be argued that under first approach regulates behavior be stating provision in the negative statement. It is therefore common to see the phrase “No officer or employee …” or that the employee should abstain from doing something or otherwise the officer of employees suffers the penalty prescribed in the code (New York State Commission on Public Integrity, 2008).

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On the other hand, under the APSA code, one seldom finds negative statements since the provisions of the Code are stated in general although authoritative principles as guides to action for professors and students (APSA, 2008).  The difference could be attributed to the fact that under the New York Code of Ethics, the officers and employees are already authorized or empowered by law to do their functions and for all intents and purposes these state officers or employees are presumed to have regularly performed their functions in the discharge of their duties (Jones and Gard, 1958).  The apparent purpose of the code is to restrain the powers and officers of the New York state. On the other hand, stating code ethics provisions in general principles under the second approach presumes an apparent lack of power although rights to being members may be availed.  The provision stated positively is more of a call to action with wise discretion rather than that of prohibition as may be perceived in first approach.      The first approach clearly prescribes the penalty for violation of code of ethics (New York State Commission on Public Integrity, 2008) but the for second, penalty would seem not provided but may be considered to be the results of not obeying the principles by simple denial benefits by those who may exercise some authority or power among subjects with the scope of the association (APSA, 2008).       It can be concluded both of the codes of ethics would still subject people to answer to higher authority since are still generally used to influence or guide behavior of subjects although they may have specific purposes as well.

They could be issued as well under different conditions and under different subjects with different purposes. As found in the this case, although the two have different subjects, those found violating the New York code may find themselves penalized by dismissal, suspension or civil liability while those found not obeying the principles and guides to action would face the prospect of not fully enjoying the benefits of joining the association such as the support of the general memberships who are acting through their elected or appointed officers or memberships may just be cancelled.References:American Political Science Association (APSA) (2000) APSA Guide to Professional Ethics, Rights and Freedoms, {www document} URL, http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/ethicsguideweb.pdf, Accessed October 8, 2008Jones and Gard (1958), The Law of Evidence, Civil and Criminal: Civil and Criminal, Bancroft-Whitney Co., 1958New York State Commission on Public Integrity (2008), New York State Public Officers Law Code of Ethics, {www document} URL, http://www.nyintegrity.org/law/ethc/POL74.html, Accessed October 8, 2008.


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