Analysis Of The Selected Medicinal Plants Biology Essay
Morphologic characteristics can be utilized in separating taxa one from another by differences in wont, home ground, blossoming and flowered morphology. ( Willis, 2005 ) . In the present surveies it was observed that the foliages of Calendula officinalis were oblong-lanceolate, 5-17 centimeter long, hairy on both sides, and with borders full or on occasion waved or weakly toothed. ( Table 1 ) .Whereas Foster ( 2001 ) studied that foliages were ovate or loosely lancelike, 2-8 centimeter long and 3-5 centimeter broad in Calendula officinalis. In Parthenium integrifolium the flower was star shaped and with a white to cream-colored visual aspect, and were produced at the tips of the upper subdivisions.
Fruit was an achene transporting a pappus. These consequences are in corporation with Wissemann and Lorenz ( 1999 ) . The present surveies showed that the root of Silybum eburneum was glabrous or somewhat tomentose, corollas was 25-30 millimeter long, tubes 10-15 millimeter long, pharynxs campanulate, 2-3 millimeter long and lobes were 6-8 millimeters long while Cypselae was brown and black spotted, 6-8 millimeter long. ( Table 1 ) .These findings corroborate with the consequences of Keil ( 2006 ) .
The fluctuations in morphological word picture of three species of Asteraceae studied showed that morphological characteristics could be utilized non merely in apprehension of works construction, in the broad sense, that develops a relationships between works signifier and other degrees of the structural hierarchy ( anatomy, histology, cytology ) but besides to acknowledge and separate the diverseness among different taxa.The consequences of the present survey indicated that in the morphological scrutiny of Cassia angustifolia and Cassia occidentalis because of the differential sensitiveness of genus, it is necessary to measure the botanical and systematic word picture of this genus. The fluctuation in tallness, ramification, leaf texture, and fruits ( Table 3 ) of the species studied could be used for systematic word picture and are of huge significance.
In this survey it was observed that the bark of Cassia angustifolia was smooth and pale Grey when immature and unsmooth and dark brown when old. These consequences are in conformity with the Nasir and Ali ( 1982 ) , harmonizing to which the bark in immature tree was smooth and ash coloured and going dark brown in old. The present survey revealed that the calyx was green, hairy, ovate and folded backward on the chaff and 9 millimeter long. The stamens were longer and much curled and bear big oblong anthers.
( Table 3 ) . While Wu et al. , ( 2010 ) reported that sepals were narrowly ovate, 1-1.5 centimeter and reflexed at blossoming and stamens were reduced with minute anthers. In the Cassia occidentalis the cusps observed were pale green to bluish green, in 3-8 braces and ovate or lanceolate where as Nasir and Ali in 1982 stated that the cusps were in 3-5 braces and lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate or narrowly to loosely elliptic and vertex was acute and rounded at the base. The flowers were xanthous, and cods were glabrous, tight and recurved.
( Table 3 ) . These consequences corroborate with the findings of Ashwani ( 2009 ) . The root of Dalbergia obovata was 2-4 m in girth at base. Bark was unsmooth with shallow wide longitudinal crevices, exfoliating in irregular woody strips and graduated tables, light brown in coloring material. Whereas Altaf and Matin ( 2007 ) concluded that Dalbergia obovata is a tree with crooked bole and its bark was gray and longitudinally to somewhat reticulately furrowed holding a girth of 1-2 m. Legume was pale brown and contained 1 or 2 ( or 3 ) seeds. Seeds were compressed and reniform. These consequences are in conformity with the findings of Tewary ( 1994 ) .
The consequences of the morphological characteristics of selected species of household Solanaceae studied showed some specific features that can be used for systematic determination. The fluctuation in tallness, ramification, leaf texture, vertex and fruits of the species studied constitutes an of import distinguishing factor that could be used for set uping intraspecies relationship. ( Table 2 ) .
In the present surveies it was observed that, in Datura metel the root subdivisions are pubescent and foliages are ovate, dentate and cuneate. Calyx is cannular and relentless and corolla is 5-lobed. ( Table 2 ) . These consequences corroborate with the findings of Nasir and Ali ( 1982 ) harmonizing to which foliages are ovate or loosely so, sinuately dentate, circumstantially puberulose and cuneate. Calyx is cannular, dentate, puberulous and relentless. Corolla is white or purple suffused and shallowly 5-lobed.
Mazumdar et al. , ( 2008 ) reported that Datura metel is a woody-stalked, leafy herb and it produces big white or violet trumpet-shaped flowers that face upward. In Solanum nigrum the root is frequently haired and the foliages are variable, and may be full or dissected, without stipules, and are normally alternate. ( Table 2 ) . This confirms the plants of earlier research findings of Samant et al. , 1998 ; Lana et al. , 2002, Mbagwu and Nwachukwu, 2006 ; Nwachukwu and Okeke, 2002 ; who used morphological fluctuations in systematic word picture of workss.
In the Solanum nigrum the calyx has five parts, which may be joined, and it frequently remains and enlarges around the fruit and the flowers have five petals and are by and large regular in form. They may be round and level or asteroid, but are frequently bell shaped or cannular. The ovary is superior ( inside the flower ) , and the fruit is either a berry or a capsule, frequently incorporating many light brown discoid seeds.
( Table 2 ) . Whereas Samant et al. , ( 1998 ) , reported that in the household Solanaceae flowers are radially or seldom bilaterally symmetrical, with hypogenous phonograph record, sepals are normally coalescing for about their full length, the calyx is relentless frequently enlarging in fruits, the ovary is normally 2 chambered or sometimes 3-5 through abnormalities of the placenta and the fruit is berry. The present surveies showed that foliages of Withania coagulans are ovate to loosely ovate, ague, oblique and elliptic. These consequences corroborate with the findings of Nasir and Ali ( 1982 ) harmonizing to which the foliages are ovate to loosely ovate, cuneate or oblique and full to repand.
The flowers are light-green xanthous and the corolla lobes are triangular. The fruit is berry and ruddy. Whereas Mbagwu and Edeoga, 2006 mentioned that the flowers in the Withania coagulans are little and green, while the mature fruit is brown and has milk-coagulating belongingss. The consequences of the morphology of three species of Solanaceae studied have proved to be of huge aid in construing jobs related to works designation and categorization.
The consequences could hence be utilized with information from other subject in clear uping systematic relationships of these taxa with other genera, species or races.
5.2 Anatomic Variations Among Selected Plant Speciess
The Foliar cuticle is one of the most notable systematic characters from the biosystematic point of position and the systematic surveies of a figure of households are madeon the footing of foliage cuticle ( Stace, 1984 ; Edeoga and Ebuka, 2000, Anderson et al. , 2006 ) . Although taxonomers recently realized the importance of microscopic characteristics of the cuticle, systematic monographs are now considered incomplete without them ( Cowan, 1996 ) .
The present survey reported that foliage cuticular anatomical characteristics such as pores, trichomes and other characters are utile anatomical tools and valuable in the designation of the workss. The walls of the cuticular cells of all the three species of Asteraceae were smooth and thick walled. Measurements of foliage epidermal cell length and breadth were regarded utile AIDSs in separating assortments within the blossoming workss.
( Nwachukwu, 2006 ) . The mean length of cuticular cells observed in Calendula officinalis was 93 ( 90-96 ) Aµm whereas the mean length of cuticular cells observed in Silybum eburneum was 55 ( 40-70 ) . The cuticular characters, which had been proven to be of systematic value, were epidermal characters, cuticle, pore, subordinate cells and trichomes ( Ellis, 1976 ) . The present survey showed diverseness in the type and form of the stomatous cells.
The pore seen in Calendula officinalis were anisocytic whereas in Parthenium integrifolium were diacytic and no pore were observed in Silybum eburneum ( Plate 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b ) . In the Parthenium integrifolium and Silybum eburneum micro-hairs were individual celled and present on both the dorsal and ventral surface whereas in Calendula officinalis no micro-hairs were seen. The usage of foliage cuticular characteristics in systematic vegetation is now popular merely like the usage of other shapers like DNA sequence and chemical composings ( Edeoga and Ikem, 2001 ; Mbagwu and Edeoga, 2007 ) . Edeoga and Osawe, 1996 invariably reaffirmed the point that cuticular and epidermal traits of workss could function as critical tools exploitable in the systematics of the present twenty-four hours flowering plants. Besides, different forms of cuticular cells, type and agreement of pore, size and form of trichomes and figure of vascular packages are all critical in systematic vegetation ( Nwachukwu and Mbagwu, 2006 ) .Stomata were absent in dorsal cuticle of Dalbergia obovata and different types of pore were recognized like diacytic, paracytic, anisocytic and hypostomatal in all the three species of Fabaceae studied.
Ahmed et al. , ( 2003 ) observed seven types of pore ( anisocytic, amphianisocytic, axillocytic, anomotetracytic, actinocytic, diacytic and staurocytic ) in the members of household Fabaceae. Santos et al. , ( 2008 ) recognized four wide classs of pores based on the presence and agreement of accoutrement cells, every bit good as their manner of development in magnoliopsids. Adedeji et al.
, ( 2007 ) reported that the presence and absence of trichomes and their type is rather valuable in the constellation of characteristic anatomical markers, which have been proven to be of systematic value. In this survey, the presence or absence of trichomes, every bit good as their types can be utile in qualifying the species studied. Multicellular trichomes were observed in Cassia angustifolia on both dorsal and ventral cuticle, whereas in Cassia occidentalis and Dalbergia obovata merely ventral side possessed trichomes. ( Plate7a. 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b ) . No silica organic structures were observed in Cassia occidentalis and Dalbergia obovata where as in Cassia angustifolia both the abaxial and ventral sides showed the presence of silica organic structures. In this regard the presence of silica organic structures emerged as utile systematic characteristic to specify different taxa studied from each other. Fahmy ( 2007 ) stated that the silicon oxide organic structures are of peculiar involvement, as they possess of import morphological characteristics, which have encouraged many research workers to place workss.
Webster ( 1983 ) and Shouling et Al. ( 1996 ) discussed that the presence of macro-hairs and their mean length is besides an of import character in designation. In the present probe macro-hairs were observed in the two species of Fabaceae. i.
e. , Cassia angustifolia and C. occidentalis. No macro-hairs were found in the Dalbergia obovata.Sankar et al.
, Olowokwudejo ( 2009 ) compared the morphology of the foliage cuticle in members of household Solanaceae and suggested the use of this character in the designation of the species. The walls of the cuticular cells of the two species ( Datura metel and Solanum nigrum ) are smooth and thick whereas Withania coagulans showed the thick undulate walls. In Datura metel the figure of pores per unit country is 4, in Solanum nigrum 11 and in Withania coagulans 3. Rogers and Ogg, ( 1981 ) reported that pore figure is two to treble higher on dorsal than on ventral cuticle of the Solanum species. ( S. nigrum, S. sarrachoides, S. americanum and S.
ptycanthum ) . In Datura metel pores are diacytic, in Solanum nigrum pores are anisocytic and in Withania coagulans pores are diacytic and anisocytic. ( Plate 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b ) . Seithe and Anderson ( 1982 ) reported that pore are anomocytic to anisocytic in S.
nigrum. Largely hairs seen are multicellular as in S. nigrum and W. coagulans. Seithe and Anderson et al. , ( 1982 ) investigated hair morphology of some species from the genus Solanum, but non in S.
5.3 Palynological Variations Among Selected Plant Speciess
Palynological surveies non merely supply extra information but besides provide systematic characters, which proved to be helpful to better the systematic place of taxa within their several categorization. Meo and khan ( 1988 ) , Nasreen & A ; Khan ( 1998 ) and Anozie, ( 2002 ) have periodically reported palynology of different households in Pakistan.The great fluctuation was observed in pollen morphology of the Asteraceae species studied. It was observed that the pollen grain of Parthenium integrifolium was smaller in size 32 ( 28.5-35.5 ) Aµm and pollen grain of Silibum eburneum was larger in size 60 ( 55-65 ) Aµm in equatorial diameter ( Fig.
1 ) where as in polar position the size ranged from 39 ( 32-39 ) Aµm to 48.5 ( 45-52 ) Aµm. Parthenium integrifolium appeared to be the smallest in size whereas Calendula officinalis was the largest.
In the present probe it was observed that Calendula officinalis was endoporus and pollen grains were trizonocolporate and tetrazonocolporate, which were largely isodiametric and colpi and furrows were boat shaped. In Parthenium integrifolium pollen was tricolporate and echinate. Whereas Nair ( 1961 ) reported merely 3-zonocolporate pollen in Calendula officinalis. The presence of trizonocolporate and tetrazonocolporate pollen in C.
officinalis is an evolutionary tendency which would be helpful to set up a phyletic relationship of species within the household Asteraceae. Praglowski & A ; Grafstron ( 1980 ) felt that a brief palynological probe of genus Calendula is helpful for systematic intents. Being of spinal columns is a diagnostic characteristic of the household Asteraceae. In the present surveies simple and some mated spinal columns were found in C. officinalis. Such mated spinal columns might be helpful in the boundary line of species in Asteraceae. Among the other characters intine thickness showed fluctuation in all the three species of Asteraceae studied ( Table 3 ) . The intine thickness ranged from 0.
75 ( 0.5-1 ) Aµm to 1.25 ( 1-1.5 ) Aµm.
Calendula officinalis showed the highest where as Parthenium integrifolium showed the lowest value. ( Fig. 1 ) . C. officinalis. showed the highest colpi length as 78.
75 ( 77-82.5 ) Aµm where as Parthenium integrifolium showed the lowest value 50.25 ( 45-55.
5 ) Aµm Spine length ranged from 40 ( 35-45 ) Aµm to 80 ( 75-85 ) Aµm. Silibum eburneum showed the lowest value and Calendula officinalis showed the highest value. Pollen birthrate is utile tool to find genic fluctuation. By utilizing this facet, we recognize the loanblends within the population and the relationship of different species.
The three species of household Asteraceae studied, the highest value of pollen birthrate was found in P. integrifolium as 85.93 % and the lowest value was in C. officinalis as 61.42 % ( Fig. 2 ) . Reitsman ( 2007 ) observed that the pollen birthrate is valuable for the taxonomers in trying to separate putative loanblends from the parent workss and is besides utile to find the grade of fertility/stainability in those workss that were grown under unfavourable conditions.Pollen grains in all species of Fabaceae were tricolporate and trizonoporate.
Pollen size was variable among the species. It was observed that the pollen grain of Cassia occidentalis was smaller in size 26.5 ( 21-32 ) Aµm and pollen grain of Dalbergia obovata was larger in size 52.75 ( 50-55.5 ) Aµm in equatorial diameter where as in polar position the size ranged from 28 ( 23-30 ) Aµm to 47.5 ( 45-50 ) Aµm. Cassia occidentalis appeared to be the smallest in size whereas Dalbergia obovata was the largest.
( Fig 1 ) . Dahlgren ( 2004 ) found great fluctuation in pollen features among 34 species belong to Leguminosae in Taiwan. A dramatic fact of the evolutionary order of these selected genera was that pollen characters related to Dalbergia species were established as porate, and reticulate ; those related to Cassia occidentalis which were psilate, perfolate, oblate-spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal or sub prolate. Pollen form was by and large unvarying in the polar position in all the three species. However in equatorial position it varied to spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, oblate-spheroidal, prolate-spheroidal and elleptic to cup-shaped in all the species studied.
Rickett ( 2007 ) utilized pollen character as extra information for systematic intents. No great fluctuation was observed in the thickness of exine and intine. In the present probe fluctuation was seen in the figure of colpi. No colpi were found in the Cassia angustifolia, figure of colpi in the pollen of Cassia occidentalis may be 2 or 3 whereas in Dalbergia obovata they were ever 3. The fluctuation was besides observed in the interspecies distance of colpi among the species studied. Dalbergia obovata showed lowest interspecies difference 3.5 ( 2-5 ) Aµm whereas Cassia occidentalis showed highest interspecies difference 5 ( 3-7 ) Aµm. ( Table 3 ) .
Campos ( 1997 ) stated that pollen grains with fewer figure of pores/colpi are termed as crude, while those with a great figure of pores/colpi are considered as advanced. The highest value of pollen birthrate was found in Cassia occidentalis as 89.43 % and the lowest value was in Dalbergia obovata as 81.14 % ( Fig 2 ) .
Pollen morphology of the household Solanaceae is rather heterogeneous. Most dramatic fluctuation is found in the form category and apertural types. ( Erdtman, 1954 ) . However tricolporate grains are universally present.
Exine thickness ranged from 1.4 ( 1.3-1.
5 ) Aµm -1.8 ( 1.7-1.9 ) Aµm.
among the species of Solanaceae studied. Withania coagulans showed the highest value whereas Solanum nigrum showed the lowest value. Datura metel showed the highest intine thickness i.e. 1.
5 ( 1-2 ) Aµm whereas Solanum nigrum showed the lowest value i.e. 1 ( 0.5-1.5 ) Aµm ( Table 3 ) . Exine and intine thickness are outstanding characteristics in this survey.
Nwachukwu and Okeke ( 2001 ) reported that pollen grains are really helpful in delegating the position of works since pollen grain wall has specific characters. It was observed that the pollen grain of Solanum nigrum is smaller in size 43.25 ( 42.5-44 ) Aµm and pollen grain of the Withania coagulans is larger in size 46.
5 ( 45-48 ) Aµm in polar diameter where as in equatorial position the size ranged from 41.5 ( 40.5-42.5 ) Aµm to 45 ( 44-46 ) Aµm. Solanum nigrum appeared to be the smallest in size whereas Datura metel is the largest. The colpi length ranged from 21.5 ( 21-22 ) Aµm to 23 ( 22-24 ) Aµm. Solanum nigrum showed the highest where as Withania coagulans showed the lowest value.
( Fig. 1 ) .The pollen grains of the species of Solanaceae studied showed similarities in their pollen properties of wall sculpture, aperture, and symmetricalness. The pollen grain of each species is radially symmetrical, isodiametric and isopolar. These consequences corroborate with the findings of Nwachukwu and Okeke ( 2001 ) harmonizing to which the pollen of Solanaceae is grain polar & A ; radially symmetrical. P/E ratio ranged from 1 to 1.4 among the species.
The pollen grains are monoporate and psilate ( smooth ) . The pore place is endoporus in Solanum nigrum and Withania coagulans where as exoporus in Datura metel.
5.4 UV, IR And Organoleptic Variations Among Selected Plant Species
Ultraviolet and Infrared spectrometry is really utile for placing the presence of peculiar types of organic and inorganic compounds and pigments and plays a critical function in systematics in designation, boundary line and hallmark of works taxa.
By and large, both spectroscopy techniques allow placing at the same time characteristic cardinal sets of single works constituents ( e.g. carotenoids, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, fatty acids, aminic acids, terpenoids ) . ( Davihazy, 2004 ) . In the present probe the UV and IR analysis worked as an assistance in the designation of the selected taxa. ( Plates 1e, 1f, 2e, 2f, 3e, 3f ) . Davihazy, 2004 reported the usage of infrared visible radiation for the blooming of house workss.
Many species of household Asteraceae have traditionally been used medicinally as they are so easy gettable and have been used for a broad array of medicative intents. The analysis of market samples of Calendula officinalis revealed the presence of smooth surface holding angoori colour and gustatory sensation is salty, austere, instead disagreeable gustatory sensation and flower holding orange coloring material and gustatory sensation is acrimonious. These organoleptic characters were similar to the determination of Gilman and Howe ( 1999 ) who studied general morphological and organoleptic characters of C.
officinalis. In instance of Parthenium integrifolium market sample collaborated with existent sample collected from different vicinities of Lahore. The outer surface of fruit was semicircular and unsmooth in visual aspect. In instance of Silybum eburneum foliages and seeds both were used. Market samples of foliages were dried therefore they showed unsmooth visual aspect and yellowish in coloring material whereas the fresh foliages were light-green holding white venas and were glistening. These consequences are in conformity with the findings of Kemper, 1999.The UV and infra-red analysis of workss is of most involvement as systematic markers at the species, generic and subfamilial degrees.
( Mattivi and Reneiro 1996 ) . The market samples of Cassia angustifolia collaborated with existent sample collected from different vicinities of Lahore. Fruit was directly or somewhat curved, smooth holding greenish-brown to about brown coloring material. These organoleptic characters were similar to the determination of Barthakur et al. , ( 1995 ) . The analysis of market samples of Dalbergia obovata revealed the presence of unsmooth surface of foliages holding spicy gustatory sensation. ( Plate 3j ) The market samples were similar to those of fresh samples. In instance of Cassia occidentalis market sample collaborated with existent samples.
Leafs were dark green and lanceolate or elliptic. These consequences corroborate with the findings of Nina et Al. ( 1990 ) .The Solanaceae household is characteristically ethno-botanical that is, extensively utilized by worlds. It is an of import beginning of nutrient, spice and medical specialty.
Organoleptic rating with the advanced microscopic equipments provides more truth for botanical hallmark. ( Jackson and Snowdown, 1990 ) . The analysis of market samples of Datura metel collaborates with the samples collected from different vicinities of Lahore. Seeds are semi round and smooth surfaced.
But the coloring material of seeds of market samples ( marvel brown coloring material ) differed with the fresh holding dark brown to black coloring material. These consequences are similar to the findings of Davihazy, 2004. In instance of Solanum nigrum the market samples revealed the presence of non smooth surface and semi round fruit. Market fruit is dried therefore its form becomes semicircular while the fresh fruit is round shiny and have smooth surface.
In instance of Withania coagulans market sample collaborates with existent sample. The outer surface of roots is bugg to gray xanthous with longitudinal furrows and in the centre soft, solid mass with scattered pores whereas fresh roots are chocolate-brown Greies with long heavy tubers. These consequences are in conformity with the Seithe and Anderson ( 1982 ) .
5 Fluorescence and Chemical Variations Among Selected Plant Species
The present research work was confined to the chemotaxonomic markers including the macro, microscopic characteristics of the powdery drug and their solubility and fluorescence analysis which were used as an assistance in the designation. Because of jobs like debasement, nomenclatural confusion, morphological similarities and deficiency of cognition about echt beginning, these chemotaxonomic techniques are of extreme importance for wider credence harmonizing to World Health Organization ( WHO ) .The powdery drug of all the three species of Asteraceae were soluble in all the dissolvers by cold and hot trials except Silybum eburneum which was soluble in all the dissolvers except azotic acid and it did non retain its original mustard coloring material on dry filter paper in assorted dissolvers by cold and hot trials. ( Table 4 ) . Dastagir and Haq ( 1995 ) besides reported similar consequences of Silybum eburneum on solubility in different dissolvers. The chemical nature of workss is used in work outing systematic jobs and gives the stopping point relationship between chemical components of workss and their systematic position.
Depending upon chemical grounds workss are classified accurately as alkaloids, flavonoids, carotinoids, polyoses, terpenoids and fatty acids. ( Dweck, 1997 ) . In the present surveies active chemical components ; alkaloids, tannic acids, amylum grains, anthraquinone and saponins were observed in all works species of Asteraceae whereas glycosides, volatile and fixed oils and ferrous chlorides were absent in the Calendula officinalis ( Table 7 ) and these consequences are in understanding with Kemper 1999. In the Parthenium integrifolium alkaloids, glycosides, amylum grains, volatile and fixed oils and ferrous chlorides were present whereas tannic acids, anthraquinone and saponins were absent. ( Table 7 ) . These findings were different from the Dweck, 1997 who reported the presence of tannic acids and saponins in the Parthenium integrifolium. Alkaloids, tannins, amylum grains, saponins and volatile and fixed oils were observed in the Silybum eburneum whereas glycosides, anthraquinone and ferrous chlorides were absent.
( Table 7 ) . These consequences corroborate with the findings of Einhellig, 2002.Fabaceae is good suited with regard to chemical constituents.
Lipids from some more common Fabaceae have been investigated to some extent, and some species of the household Fabaceae ( Leguminosae ) are besides beginnings of inexpensive protein for both worlds and animate beings ( Tewatia and Wirk, 1996 ) . The consequences in the present probe showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, amylum grains, tannic acids, anthraquinone, saponins and ferrous chlorides whereas fixed and volatile oils were absent in all the three selected works species of Fabaceae. ( Table 7 ) .
The consequences corroborate with the findings of Sotheeswaran and Pasupathy, 2003 harmonizing to which members of Fabaceae produce assortment of compounds such as alkaloids, glycosides, amylum grains, tannic acids, anthraquinone, triterpenoid, flavonoid and arylpropanoid.The powdery drug of all the three species of Solanaceae were soluble in all the dissolvers by cold and hot trials except Datura metel which was soluble in all the dissolvers except azotic acid and it did non retain its original pale xanthous coloring material on dry filter paper and in assorted dissolvers by cold and hot trials. ( Table 6 ) . Dastagir and Haq ( 1995 ) besides reported similar consequences of Datura metel on solubility in different dissolvers.
In all the three selected works species of Solanaceae alkaloids, glycosides, amylum grains, tannic acids, anthraquinone, saponins and ferrous chlorides were present whereas fixed and volatile oils were absent. ( Table 7 ) . These findings were in understanding with the Dweck, 1997. The powdery drug of all the three species of Slanaceae were soluble in all the dissolvers except azotic acid by cold trial but became soluble by hot trial.
( Table 6 ) . C. occidentalis did non retain its original dark grey green coloring material on dry filter paper and became tap on filter paper in assorted dissolvers by cold and hot trials. ( Table 5 ) . Zaman, and Khan. ( 1997 ) besides reported similar consequences of C. occidentalis on solubility in assorted dissolvers.
The present research undertaking included some selected members of household Asteraceae, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, consisting the species Calendula officinalis, Parthenium integrifolium, Silybum eburneum, Datura metel, Solanum nigrum, Withania coagulans, Cassia angustifolia, Cassia occidentalis and Dalbergia obovata.Morphology of the selected members of all the three households showed great fluctuation within the taxa. An huge fluctuation had been observed within the species while analyzing the morphological characteristics. Many characters like foliages shape and size, blossoming type, flower form, calyx and corolla form and size, anthers length and width and seed and fruit type and coloring material showed a great fluctuation in all the selected species. Anatomic surveies carried out had besides been successful to place the species from the systematic point of position. While analyzing leaf cuticular characters, a assortment of characters like macro-hairs, micro-hairs, forms of cuticular cells, length and breadth of cuticular and subordinate cells, pores type, length and width etc. can be used as a tool for the systematic grouping of different species.
The present surveies indicated that palynology is taxonomically utile. On the footing of the palyno-morph characteristics, we can separate among different species. UV, infra-red analysis, organoleptography, fluorescence, solubility and chemical analysis were used as a tool in systematic word picture. All the multiple parametric quantities studied were constructed for the systematic description to categorization of the selected genera. The present survey was a measure towards fixing a systematic stock list of selected medicative workss.
5.7 Addition to Flora of Pakistan
The present survey included some add-on in vegetation of Pakistan besides, although all the selected species, Calendula officinalis, Parthenium integrifolium, Silybum eburneum, Datura metel, Solanum nigrum, Withania coagulans, cassia angustifolia, Cassia occidentalis and Dalbergia obovata are common workss in Pakistan and a batch of work has been done on them with many facets but still in the vegetation of Pakistan, 1990, all the three taxa of Asteraceae ( Calendula officinalis, Parthenium integrifolium and Silybum eburneum ) and Dalbergia obovata ( Fabaceae ) are non mentioned and no description of Datura metel ( Solanaceae ) and Cassia angustifolia ( Fabaceae ) was given, and the present survey gives a comprehensive history on these taxa with multiple parametric quantities.