Analysis Of Floral Characteristics Of Four Cultivars Biology Essay
This subdivision deals with the treatment of the consequences obtained above. Structure-function relationships of the different parts of the four cultivars studied are discussed and different forms and correlativities if exist in the consequences are described and discussed.
Finally, the findings of this undertaking are compared to other research works done on Mangifera indica cultivars in order to happen similarities and differences.
5.1 Analysis of flowered features
The differences in the flowers are the size itself of the flower, its colour and differences in petals and generative constructions. However, the similarity between the flowers is that they all exhibit bilateral symmetricalness. This brings into context the work carried out by Edward et Al where he concluded that Mangifera indica cultivars have radially symmetrical flowers ( Evans Edward et Al, 2008 ) .
But in the survey carried out by Bissoon M in 2009 whereby four cultivars of Mangifera indica from Mauritius were studied she found that the flowers were bilaterally symmetrical. All these surveies prove that our Mangifera indica cultivars are alone and different from cultivars abroad. Observations of the petals have shown that they contain ridges doing a possible connexion with nectar bring forthing flowers and therefore insect pollenation. Similarly the observations made about the generative constructions confirm the fact that air current pollenation possibly uncommon as the pollen grains were non dry, light and abundant, in fact they were moistnesss and present in little sum.
Besides, the fact that four of the cultivars studied showed that they possess stamens of the same length as the pistils ; this suggests that ego pollenation may happen. Furthermore, Popenoe ( 1920 ) pointed out that Mangifera indica flowers have none of the features of a wind-pollinated flower, and he considered the Mangifera indica to be an insect-pollinated works. Furthermore, recent surveies in India showed that workss caged to except all insects set no fruit, but a works caged with a settlement of honey bees where put a heavy harvest. Singh ( 1961 ) confirmed this by describing that over 65 per centum of the perfect flowers were ne’er pollinated- a strong indicant that air current is non an effectual pollinating agent.
5.2 Analysis of Mangifera indica foliages features
Observations and experiment carried out on Mangifera indica foliages showed that the basic form of Mangifera indica foliages were Lanceolate although there are fluctuations among the Lanceolate form. This observation correlates with that of Edward G et Al ( Evans Edward et Al ) whereby he and his associates classified the foliages of the workss from Mangifera genus as Lanceolate in form therefore turn outing that the cultivars studied in this undertaking viz.
; Aristide, Christian, Eugenie and Overseer Barkly are every bit good from the Mangifera genus. The colour of the foliages correlates with most observation made by other researches whereby it has been noted that there is a fluctuation in colour from red in immature foliages to green in mature foliages. In add-on, with the statistical analysis carried out with the length of the foliages, where P was shown to be less than 0.05, it has been proved that important differences exist between the lengths of the cultivars which are non so obvious at a first glimpse. Eugenie was found to possess the longest foliages while Christian has the shortest foliages. Significant differences besides exist in breadth of the cultivars ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) whereby Christian possessed the narrowest foliages.
Thus it can be concluded that the cultivar Christian possesses the smallest foliages among the four cultivars.Refering the secondary venas present in the foliages. It was seen that they were pinnately arranged. This observation correlates with the observation done by Bissoon M, where she excessively found that the foliages of Mangifera indica cultivars had pinnately arranged secondary venas. However, when comparing her statistical analysis of the figure of venas present with mine, differences could be observed. While her cultivars studied had foliages which contained about the same figure of venas, the cultivars studied in this undertaking had foliages with important differences in the figure of venas they content intending that the figure of venas varied among the four cultivars.
This has been proved by ANOVA trial with a important value of P being less than 0.05.The stomatous analysis done with the four cultivars further concludes that the cultivars studied are really different from each other from a morphological point of view. The experiments done showed that Mangifera indica foliages are hypostomatic holding pore confined merely on the dorsal side ( lower surface ) of the foliages. With a P & A ; lt ; 0.
05 at ANOVA trial at 5 % , the figure of stomata nowadays greatly differs from one cultivar to another. Cultivar Christian has been found to possess the smallest pore and the highest denseness of pore among the 4 cultivars. This makes it the one least adapted to cut down H2O loss during transpiration while Aristide is the most altered.
It is of import to observe that clear images of the pore could non be obtained due to a deficiency of scanning negatron microscope in the research lab.Tissue processing has enabled the survey of the interior constructions of the foliages. The different cell types consisting the midvein and its associated vascular packages could be really good observed. It came out signifier these experiments that the interior anatomical constructions of the foliages of the four cultivars were similar to each other. The four cultivars have the same type of cuticular, collenchyma, parenchyma, sclerenchyma and vascular tissue. However the figure of vascular bundle nowadays in the foliages of each cultivar differs validated with a P value of & A ; lt ; 0.05 with Christian possessing the highest figure.
Furthermore it has been found that the form of the midvein varies with each cultivar with cultivar Eugenie holding the largest midvein.Much comparing could non be made with other cultivars as midvein of Mangifera indica cultivars have been seldom experimented.
5.3 Analysis of Mangifera indica fruits
The most dramatic difference between the four cultivars was their fruits. The fruits are the most of import characteristic to qualify the four cultivars because they have distinguishable characteristic. The first characteristic studied was the form whereby Christian and Eugenie were more or less of the same form and Aristide and Overseer Barkly had changing oblong form.
For the Peel colour it was noted that all cultivars had to make that common passage xanthous colour before making their distinguishable colour at ripening. By statistical analysis, the average length, breadth and weight of the different cultivars were found to be really significantly different signifier each other with a P value of & A ; lt ; 0.05 for all the three characteristics. The per centum of mush nowadays and the fibre content was determined and these besides vary from cultivars to cultivars. No other surveies were made on these cultivars ; therefore much comparing to other related plants could non be made.Analysis of the seeds further complemented the survey and showed that the four cultivars studied possess characteristic characteristic.
The cultivars contain really different seeds in footings of their weight, length and breadth ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . The sum of fibres and venation besides was found to change. These are the salient features which enable the categorization of the cultivar at a glimpse and therefore let easy designation of the cultivars. In this undertaking the survey of the maximal characteristics available of the fruits were done to obtain good standards for the word picture of the cultivars as compared to Bissoon M where thickness of the tegument, the mush per centum content and the flesh texture were non mentioned in her survey.
5.4 Analysis of root construction
Cuting of the root by free manus segmenting method has provided an easy and speedy manner to analyse the internal constructions of the root.
Vascular packages in the root of the four cultivars are similar and present no differences in construction except for the concentration of the vascular packages. The packages are arranged in a indirect manner and in a ring like in most dicot workss. However the free manus segmenting reduced the visibleness of the signifier, form and size of the interior cells as the subdivisions cut were comparatively thick as compared to subdivisions cut by a microtome.Therefore, eventually it can be said that the four cultivars studied viz. : Aristide, Christian, Eugenie and Overseer Barkly have contrasting characteristic to separate them from each other and other Mangifera indica species.
Thus they can be claimed as our national heritage belonging merely to or state and therefore are endemic species.
The purpose of this survey is to qualify morphologically four locally available Mangifera indica cultivars refering to Mauritius. This undertaking & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s consequences, has enable the word picture of the four cultivars endemic to Mauritius viz. ; Aristide, Christian, Eugenie and Overseer Barkly.Morphological and Micromorphological analysis of the salient characteristics like the flowers, foliages, fruits and root have provided adequate similarities and differences to compare and contrast them and therefore claimed them as our national heritage.
The characteristics were studied by assorted experiments like tissue processing and embedding in wax, free manus sectioning and taking measurings and record observations.This survey has enables the observation in item of the flowers of the four cultivars. It has been shown that the flowers exhibit bilateral symmetricalness and that mango flowers do non rely much on air current pollenation since they do non possess characteristic characteristics of a air current pollinated works but that of an insect pollinated works.During this survey, it has been found that foliages of Mangifera indica cultivars are of Lanceolate form and are hypostomatic holding stomata merely on the dorsal side.
These two characteristics have made possible the correlativity of this survey with that of James C and Evan E whereby they both concluded that the form of the foliages is of Lanceolate type. It has besides been observed that the characteristics of the foliages studied vary much among the four cultivars studied.Furthermore, the fruits studied were characteristic of the cultivars whereby their colour, form, construction and mush texture were each of important difference except for their breadth which were about the same. These alone features have allowed the word picture of the cultivars endemic to our island as no resemblance has been found to cultivars abroad.Finally, this undertaking shows that morphological analysis can be an easy, inexpensive and indispensable tool for qualifying species based on their characteristic characteristics like ; flowers, foliages, fruits and root.
This undertaking in which the word picture of four locally available cultivars were carried out can show a new beginning to the categorization and word picture of the remainder of the cultivars present in Mauritius observing that Mauritius have more than 50 cultivars of Mangifera indica and therefore complementing the list of Mangifera indicas classified as our national heritage. Furthermore, this work can be a taken as a continuance of the work done by Bissoon M whereby four other different cultivars were studied and the work done by Seeruttun S who studied merely the fruits of different cultivars locally available.