An analysis of various ectoparasites. Essay


Ectoparasites are parasites which live on the outer suface or between the first tegument beds of the host. They are portion of the phylum Arthropoda and like any parasite ; they require a host for their endurance. Bed Bug, Fleas, Lice, Mites, Mosquitoes and Ticks are some of the ectozoans that will be observed in the lab experiment.

BedbugsA ( Cimex lectularius )

There are level, egg-shaped, brown insects that normally inhabit houses and ignored beds. They feed on the blood of adult male normally during the dark clip, and causes rubing where bites are.

Human fleasA ( Pulex irritans )

They are really little, wingless, blood sucking insects who besides act as vectors for the spread of diseases such as the pestilence, tularaemia, and undulant fever.

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They are arthropods that belong to the order Acarina. They differ from ticks because normally they are either transparent or sometimes translucent. They burrow into the tegument ; this causes intense scabiess which consequences in inflamed countries of the skin surface. Touchs can merely populate under four yearss if they are removed from the host organic structure.


They look gray, decidedly wingless, and look to be flattened parasitic insects ; they belong to the suborder Anoplura. They are found in the crowded countries that exhibit hapless sanitation and hygiene. These types of infestations are called lousiness. They live on the blood of the host and it is obtained by piercing the tegument and sucking with the mouthparts.


They are blood sucking arachnoid that can be seen by the oculus. They act as vectors for certain bacteriums which are known to do diseases among worlds. There are two types of ticks: difficult ticks and soft ticks. Soft ticks do n’t borrow into the tegument but the difficult ticks do.

In this subdivision, you will be required to attach all the drawings completed during the research lab session. All drawings must be accompanied by the followers:

Taxonomy of the parasite ( Phylum/subphylum, class/sub category, order, household, genus and species )

An appropriate label for the drawing with the magnification next to it.

Proper labels ( that can be read ) along with brief notes.

Complete the undermentioned tabular array:


Feeding/attachment of hosiery

Life rhythms that are parasitic/ act as vectors


Associated diseases

Bed bug

It pierces the tegument of the host with its decoagulant which is used to retreat blood. The procedure is painlessly.

Nymph and Adult phases are parasitic but the Adult phase Acts of the Apostless as a vector.

Have sensory variety meats which sense heat, Carbon Dioxide and kairomones.

Chagas Disease

Mosquito ( Culex or Anopheles )

Fascicle pierces the blood vas s to feed on blood.

Adult phase act as vector

The Eggs remain adrift by virute of sidelong air Chamberss.


Pulex irritans

Modified mouthparts for feeding on the tegument.

Adult phase act as vector

The Body is laterally compressed to let better residence on the host. Has a pronotal ctenidium that allows the flea to travel through hair every bit good as protect underlying organic structure parts.


Pediculus humanus capitis

Modified mouthpart for blood eating, piercing and sucking.

Nymph and Adult are parasitic

There are no hibernating phases, so hold the ability lice to last rough environmental conditions

Pediculosis and Dermatitis.

Phthirus pubic bone

Modified moutpart for blood eating by piercing and sucking.

Nymph and Adults are parasitic

Board organic structure with catching claws to let for a more efficient clasp on the host hairs.

Pediculosis pubic bone

Calliphora vomitoria

Larvae and grownup provender on disintegrating tissues.

Larva are parasitic and grownups act as vectors

Modified Sensory variety meats to happen decaying tissue to feed on. The larva has a hook construction on the anterior terminal for fond regard.


Rhipicelphalus sanguineus.

Uses the capituli to attach to host and feeds on blood with a piercing mouthpart.

Larvae, nymphs and Adults are parasitic

Adapted for all ecological niches one time blood repast are available.

Boutenneuse Fever, East Coast Fever and Borrelia theileri.

Culicoides amazonius

Modified oral cavity for piercing tegument and feeding on blood.

Adults act as vectors

Spontaneous genteelness forms

Blue-tongue disease

Why do arthropods do successful ectozoans? Write three ( 3 ) paragraphs to explicate this.

Arthropod is the most successful phylum in the full systematic list. They are successful because of their efficiency in gesture, the home ground niches they infiltrate and respiratory methods.

They achieved this efficient motive power from the features of their tough Exoskeleton which made of Chitin. Chitin is a tough polyose which is really lightweight, so non much energy is needed for motion. Cleavage of the legs besides allows for better motive power, so because of these characteristics locomotion additions in efficiency.

Their difficult exoskeleton organic structure acts as armor which severs as protection, their being in all ecological niches is as a consequence of this. This exoskeleton characteristic increases their resiliency ( the chitin exoskeleton ) to the environmentally rough conditions.

Arthropods have a tracheal system which is an unfastened repertory system. This means that O diffusion is faster ( Starr and Taggart 2006 ) . Oxygen is transported across the thin walls to the tissues, the tissue is invariably saturated with O, and this procedure keeps them sufficiently ventilated ( Randall et al. 1997 ) .

List three ( 3 ) illustrations of parasitic crustaceans and for each province the organism/organisms that they parasitize.

The giant louse is a type of parasitic crustacean from the household Cyamidae. The common name “ skeleton runt ” is a parasite that feeds of the lesions and tegument of Whales. This causes mild harm ( C. De Broyer, 2009 ) .

Porocephalus crotali, besides a parasitic crustacean, common name “ Tongue worm ” is found in mammals and serpents. ( M. D. Brookins, J. F. X. Wellehan, J. F. Roberts, K. Allison, S. S. Curran, A. L. Childress & A ; E. C. Greiner, 2009 ) .

Branchiura, normally known as “ carp lice or fish lice ” , is found on a bulk of fishes. ( Joel W. Martin & A ; George E. Davis, 2001 ) .

Outline the differences between ticks and mosquitoes as ectozoans ( morphology, home ground, life rhythm ) .





Difficult ticks have an outer shell made of chitin and Soft ticks have a membranous outer surface.

Their oral cavity country has hypostome which is used for attaching itself onto the host while feeding.

Has a long proboscis. There are graduated tables on the organic structure, flying venas and flying boundary lines. The besides have a brace of long aerial, besides have compound eyes.

Life rhythm.

Larvae- delay on the land for possible host, when it finds a host it so attaches and starts eating.

Nymphs- provender on host after sheding from the larvae.

Adult – continues eating, seeks a mate, females bead off eggs and so decease

Larvae- Live in H2O for about 7-14 yearss. They feed on algae and little benthal beings.

Pupal- this life phase is in H2O besides and takes around 1-4 yearss, it has no eating activity.

Adult- Survives by holding blood repasts and so will put eggs in aquatic countries.


All phases take topographic point on tellurian home grounds

Pupa and Laval phases take topographic point in aquatic home grounds.

The grownup ‘s phase is observed chiefly in the tellurian home grounds.


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