An Analysis Of The Term Actually Incurred Essay

In Section 11 ( a ) Of Income Tax Action Act No 58 Of 1962 Essay, Research PaperAn Analysis of The Term Actually Incurred In Section 11 ( a ) of Income Tax ActionAct No 58 of 1962A TECHNICAL REPORT TO BE PRESENTED TOTHE DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTINGUniversity OF CAPE TOWNIN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THEBATCHELOR OF COMMERCE ( HONOURS )DEGREE IN TAXATIONBYPETER CRAWFORDStudent NO. CRWPET005April 1996I certify that the study is my ain work and all mentions used, areaccurately recorded.1.SYNOPSISBy and large Accepted Accounting Practice includes statement AC000: Model forthe readying and presentation of fiscal statements. This sets out wideand unequivocal regulations regulating the acknowledgment of liabilities and income andoutgo in fiscal statements.

Specifically the following paragraphs demandto be considered:Recognition of liabilities:91. A liability is recognised in the balance sheet when it is likelythat an escape of resources incarnating economic benefits willconsequence from the colony of a present duty and the sumat which the colony will take topographic point can be measured faithfully & # 8230 ;Recognition of disbursals:94. Expenses are recognised in the income statement when a lessening infuture economic benefits related to a lessening in an plus oran addition of a liability has arisen that can be measuredfaithfully. This means in consequence that acknowledgment of disbursalsoccurs at the same time with the acknowledgment of an additionor a lessening in assets95. Expenses are recognised in the income statement on the footingof a direct association between the costs incurred and the and theearning of specific points of income. This procedure, normallyreferred to as the matching of costs with grosss, involves thecoincident or combined acknowledgment of grosss and disbursals thatconsequence straight and jointly from the same dealing or otherevents ;The fisc takes small notice of these regulations when it comes to the acknowledgment ofoutgo for the intents of revenue enhancement.

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It is the portion of these regulations thatregulate the general tax write-off proviso that this study will analyze.Section 11 ( a ) of the South African Income Tax Act No. 58 of 1962 ( as amended )reads as follows:11. General tax write-offs allowed in the finding of nonexempt income.

-For the intent of finding the nonexempt income derived by anyindividual from the transporting on of any trade within the Republic, thereshall be allowed as tax write-offs from the income of such individual soderived-( a ) outgo and losingss really incurred in the Republic in theproduction of the income, provided such outgo and losingssare non of a capital nature.The subdivision defines the conditions that must be met for outgo and losingssto be allowed as tax write-offs from income. The outgo or losingss must holdbeen: ActussmeNational TrustIn the Republic of South Africa.In the production of the income.Such outgo or losingss must non be of a capital nature.The subdivision has to be read together with s23 ( g )23.

Tax write-offs non allowed in the finding of nonexempt income.-No tax write-offs shall be made in regard of any moneys, claimedas a tax write-off from trade, to the extent to which such monieswere non laid out or expended for the intents of trade. & # 8217 ;This study will concentrate on the significance of the term & # 8220 ; really incurred & # 8221 ; ( as acritical portion of the acknowledgment procedure ) and non on the other demands. Itwill research the difference between the accounting demands for outgoand liabilities to be recognised, and the demands for acknowledgment forIncome Tax intents.

It will seek to better understand the significance anddeductions of this phrase, with a position to be able to better manage and controlits impact on the acknowledgment of outgo and losingss. It will besides researchsome of the Grey countries that can and hold caused the taxpayer and the fiscconsiderable jobs in the yesteryear. In concluding, some of the recent legislativealterations will de discussed and considered.2. ACTUALLY INCURRED IN THE CONTEXT OF SECTION 11 ( a ) .Section 11 ( a ) of the South African Income Tax Act No. 58 of 1962 ( as amended ) ,reads as follows:11. General tax write-offs allowed in finding of nonexempt income.

-For the intent of finding the nonexempt income derivedby any individual from the transporting on of any trade within theRepublic, there shall be allowed as tax write-offs from theincome of such individual so derived-( a ) outgo and losingss really incurred in the Republic in theproduction of the income, provided that such outgo andlosingss are non of a capital nature.Section 11 ( a ) is loosely referred to as the general tax write-off proviso. It isintended to cover the demands for outgo and losingss to be deductiblein the finding of nonexempt income. Whilst the subdivision is comprehensive asit stands, there is a farther critical demand that the outgo andlosingss have been incurred during the twelvemonth of appraisal. This is non expresslystated in the subdivision, but it is considered to be inexplicit that outgo ismerely deductible for revenue enhancement intents, in the twelvemonth in which it is incurred.Significant of import instance jurisprudence exists to back up this contention.

Therefore, shouldoutgo, normally deductible under s11 ( a ) , non be claimed as a tax write-off inthe twelvemonth in which it is incurred, it may non be claimed in any other twelvemonth,unless the Act provides otherwise.The acknowledgment or deductibility of outgo, provided all the otherdemands are met, is triggered by incurral. This study will concentrate on threechief issues environing incurral:a. Was outgo really incurred? To set up this, one needs tounderstand and defineprecisely what constitutes existent incurral.B. When did incurral take topographic point? This will take to understanding preciselywhen the action oractions which triggered incurral, took topographic point. The timing of incurral willfind the twelvemonth ofappraisal in which the outgo or loss may be deductible in thefinding of nonexemptincome.In the Caltex Oil instance Botha J.

A. made the point that income revenue enhancement isassessed on an one-yearfooting, this lends support to the contention that outgo incurred in apeculiar twelvemonth ofappraisal is merely deductible in that same twelvemonth. The finding of thetwelvemonth in which theoutgo or loss is really incurred, brings more jobs to beresolved.c.

There is the job of outgo in regard of which the dutyto pay is, or duringthe twelvemonth, becomes, unconditioned, but which can non be quantified untilafter the expiration ofthe twelvemonth of appraisal.This once more leads to a overplus of jobs to decide. The 2nd twelvemonthjob being but merelyone.All the issues give rise to thorny jobs. There are many more issues. Thetribunals and the legislative assembly have battled. Some of the jobs encountered havebeen raised by the two most recent Committees of Inquiry such that statute lawhas late been introduced to decide them in the hereafter. This will besides bediscussed and considered.

The primary aim of this study is to seek to assist to better understand thisbasically critical country of the revenue enhancement jurisprudence.Planing to avoid future jobs is easier so covering with a jobafter it has arisen, because history can non be changed except in exceedingfortunes To be able to be after so that the happening of incurral can beplanned instead so merely to be in the lap of the Gods. This is boundlesslybetter so supporting past actions. It is both cheaper and the result much morecertain.3.

WHY IS & # 8220 ; ACTUALLY INCURRED & # 8221 ; SUCH A Critical Provision:3.1 What does it intend to be really incurred.In construing a financial legislative act,It is of import to separate between the givens of statutoryreading and theregulations or canons of building. The givens have obligatory force,being legal regulationsderived from the common jurisprudence. They are intrinsic to the rule oflegality because theymeasure up parliament s legislative passages and exist side by sidewith thecommissariats of all legislative acts. The regulations or canons of building, on theother manus, have noposition as legal regulations and are simply conceptual theoretical accounts applied ( or nonapplied as the instance maybe ) by Judgess coping with the significance of peculiar legislativecommissariats.The traditional attack to the reading of legislative acts, frequentlyreferred to as theCardinal regulation, holds that the actual significance of the diction of aproviso must beascertained by the usage of ordinary grammatical regulations. If the significance ofthe words is clear,so this significance represents the purpose of Parliament, the object ofstatutoryreading ever being to stomp a peculiar significance with theLegislature s impramaturby agencies of the fiction of parliamentary purpose.

Considerations of equity, adversity, or societal policy are irrelevant oncethe purposeof Parliament is unequivocally established. .In Partington v Attorney General, Lord Cairns stated thatif a individual sought to be taxed comes within the missive of thejurisprudence, he must be taxed, nevertheless great the adversity may lookto the judicial head to be. In other words, if there may be anjust building, surely such a building is nonadmissible in a taxing legislative act.

In Cape Brandy Syndicate V IRC Rowlatt J. [ 71 ] said:In a taxing Act 1 has to look simply at what is clearlysaid. There is no room for any intendment. There is noequity about a revenue enhancement. There is no given as to revenue enhancement.Nothing is to be read in, nil is to be implied. One canmerely look reasonably at the linguistic communication used.

Given some of the regulations of reading above, it must be evident that greatattention must be taken when seeking to set up the significance of financial legislative acts. Theterminal consequence does non hold to be just or sensible. It is hencecritically of import to understand the jurisprudence so that the taxpayer is able at thebeginning to properly program his personal businesss so as to accomplish revenue enhancement efficiency, while atall times maintaining within the jurisprudence. In IRC v Duke of Westminster Lord Tomlin saidat 19 TLR 472,Every adult male is entitled, if he can, to order his personal businesss sothat the revenue enhancement attaching under the appropriate Acts is lessthan it otherwise would be.To hold been really incurred, means that an unconditioned legal liability towage now or at some other clip has arisen. Payment does non hold to hold beeneffected for incurral to hold occurred. Once the events that constitute incurralhave taken topographic point, the outgo or loss has been really incurred, and thedisbursal or loss will be recognised in the finding of nonexempt income, giventhe premise that all other demands have been met.

Therefore incurral can beseen to be that which triggers acknowledgment.GAAP lays down really clearly that:Recognition of liabilities A liability is recognised in the balancesheet when it is likely that an escape of resources incarnatingeconomic benefits will ensue from the colony of a presentduty and the sum at which the colony will take topographic pointcan be measured faithfully.Therefore, chance can precipitate acknowledgment in the fiscal statements. Thisis so brought to account by raising commissariats to provide for awaitedlikely outgo. The Act really clearly in Section 11 ( a ) , requires existentincurral, and as if that were non plenty, Section 23 ( vitamin E ) spells out the negativetrial loud and clear:23. Tax write-offs non allowed in the finding of nonexemptincome.- No tax write-offs shall in any instance be made in regardof any of the undermentioned affairs, namely- ( vitamin E ) incomecarried to any modesty fund or capitalised in any manner.The Tax Act requires that unconditioned legal liability exists before an disbursalhas been incurred.

Probability nevertheless likely, does non run into the measure. Andisbursal or loss which is contingent upon the occurrence of an unsure hereafterevent is non really incurred. The liability therefor is non absolute andunconditioned.The Members Handbook of the Institute of Chartered Accountants besides spells outthat:The sum of a contingent loss should be provided for by a chargein the income statement if:

R / & gt ;it is likely that future events will corroborate that, after takinginto history any related likely recovery, the value of an plushas been impaired or a liability has been incurred at the balancesheet day of the month, and a sensible estimation of the sum of theensuing loss can be made.Again, here is the contrast between a contingent liability and one which, hadbeen encountered, run into or fallen upon.In the Australian instance, FCT V James Flood ( Pty ) Ltd, the taxpayer sought todeduct in the twelvemonth of income in inquiry, sums in regard of one-year leavewhich were due for payment to employees merely in the undermentioned financial twelvemonth. Infootings of the applicable industrial understanding these sums were merely collectible toemployees at a hereafter day of the month, and under a assortment of fortunes an employeewho did non function his full period might non go entitled to anything. Thecompany sought to subtract a proportion, tantamount to the period of service inthe twelvemonth of appraisal, of the sum which would go collectible if theemployee in the class of the following twelvemonth, completed the needed 12 monthsservice.

The tribunal accepted that a liability can be incurred although it maynon be due and collectible. In regard of the leave payment due to employees in thefollowing financial orchard held that there was no debitum in praesenti solvendumin futuro ( a debt or duty complete when contracted, but of whichpublic presentation can non be required until some future period ) , because their periodof service had non yet qualified them for one-year leave. To measure up for tax write-off,the liability must hold been incurred in the sense that it had beenencountered, run into or fallen upon. The taxpayer must hold whollysubjected himself to the outgo although it need non be an immediateduty enforceable at jurisprudence and it need non be indefeasible. The entreaty by theCommissioner was allowed.In Caltex Oil ( SA ) Ltd V SIR, the appellate company obtained supplies of petroleumoil and other merchandises from Caltex ( UK ) Ltd and Caltex Services Ltd, bothlocated overseas.

Bills would be rendered to the plaintiff in error in BritishSterling, instantly the goods were shipped. Upon reception of the bills, theplaintiff in error would change over the purchase monetary value into SA Rands at the rate of exchangegoverning on the day of the month of cargo. Entries were made in the appellate s books atthis clip. The value so recorded was ne’er altered despite fluctuations in theRand currency between the day of the month of purchase and the terminal of the appellate sfiscal twelvemonth on 25 December of each twelvemonth.On 19 November 1967, the rate of exchange between the Rand and the lbsterling changed from R2 = ? 1, to R1.7207 = ? 1. As a consequence of this, the sumsowing to the abroad companies reduced. The debt due to Caltex Services Ltdreduced by R14,031, and the debt due to Caltex ( UK ) Ltd reduced by R1,336,271.

The debt to Caltex Services was settled before the terminal of the fiscal twelvemonth.The other debt remained outstanding.The respondent added back the amount of the two sums in the finding of theplaintiff in errors liability for revenue enhancement for 1967. The exclusive issue that was put before theAppeal Court, was whether thee two amounts, which the plaintiff in error. by ground of thedevaluation of sterling, was non required to pay, could be said to be portion ofthe outgo really incurred. Botha J.A.

summed the consentaneous opinion upas follows:The appellate really discharged its liability to Caltex ServicesLtd after the devaluation and before the terminal of the 1967 revenue enhancement twelvemonthby using R14,031 less than the sum of R98,217 entered inits books of history. It seems rather impossible to state that simplybecause the higher sum of R98,217 was entered in appellate sbooks of history as the equivalent, as at the day of the month of the relevantminutess, of? 48,925 sterling, the outgo reallyincurred in connexion with the Caltex Services Ltd minutess,was anything more than the sum really expended by the plaintiff in error.He went on further:the sum of outgo really incurred for the intent ofs11 ( a ) can merely be the sum required in rands to dispatchthat liability in the revenue enhancement twelvemonth in which it was incurred.With respect to the 2nd larger liability which was still outstanding at theterminal of 1967 ;It was at the terminal of the 1967 revenue enhancement twelvemonth that the sum of theoutgo really incurred during the twelvemonth had to be determinedand brought into history The plaintiff in error ne’er incurred a liabilityto pay an sum of R9,353,920 to Caltex UK Ltd, but was an sumexpressed in sterling which, for the intents of the Income Tax Act,had to be reflected in the tantamount thereof in rands converted atthe day of the month at which the outgo really incurred is requiredto be quantified and brought into history for the intents ofs11 ( a ) of the Act, or at the day of the month of the discharge of thatliability within that financial twelvemonth.To sum it up merely, with respect to the debt paid during the twelvemonth, the sumreally incurred was the sum paid in colony thereof. In regard of theliability unsettled at the twelvemonth terminal, merely the sum calculated as being collectibleat the terminal of the twelvemonth, was the sum really incurred. The balance of thesum claimed was dependent upon an unsure future event, and had non beenreally incurred.

In Nasionale Pers vs KBI the appellate undertook to pay its employees a 13thcheck after the completion of a full twelvemonth of service, or pro rata thereof forshorter service. The fillips were paid on 30 September of each twelvemonth. It was astatus of the payment thereof that the company was entitled to retrievefillips from employees non still in the employ of the company on the 31 Octoberfollowing. The fiscal twelvemonth of the company ended on 31 March of each Earthcompany sought to claim a pro rata part of the fillips ( 6/12 ) as a tax write-offin the twelvemonth stoping March antecedently. The entreaty was based on two contentions:I. The issue of fillips was a commercial world & # 8211 ; they would hold to be paid ;the bulk of the work force would measure up.two. The taxpayer s liability to pay a fillip for each month of service existedcapable merely to a resolutive status in the event of him/her go forthing theemploy of the taxpayer before 31 October.

Thus the outgo had been reallyincurred. Hoexter J.A. , held that:The duties to employees were single and non corporate.Therefore the liability to the employees as a group was no more than theliability would be to each single employee. The hereafterunsure event ( whether the employee would be in the plaintiff in errorsemploy on 31 October ) which would give rise to the duty topay a vacation fillip, was an event which fell outside the revenue enhancement twelvemonthof the applier.In simple words, the decision drawn, was that at the terminal of March, there wasno unconditioned duty to pay a fillip to any employee.

Whilst it waslikely that the company would be required to pay fillips of the quantumcalculated, to the bulk of the work force, there was no unconditionedliability to pay any individual employee a fillip, in being at the terminal of thefiscal twelvemonth in inquiry. Thus the outgo could non hold been reallyincurred in the twelvemonth in inquiry.The plaintiff in error in ITC 1531, had received R360,000, on 1 August 1983, being thereturns of a loan raised in Germany. The loan was repayable in Deutschemarks( DM ) in the hereafter. Between 1 August 1983 and 31 December 1983, the Rand haddeclined against the DM. The consequence of the devaluation was that the liabilityto the loaner, expressed in SA Rands as at 31 December 1983, was R370,509.

16.During 1984 a farther loan was raised in Germany. The returns in SA Rands wasR200,000. The farther loan was besides repayable in DM.

On the last twenty-four hours of the 1984 twelvemonth of appraisal, the liability of theplaintiff in error, based on the rate of exchange rate predominating amounted to,R730,382.65. In consequence, the inauspicious motion in the exchange rates, theappellate s liability had been increased in the 1984 twelvemonth by R159,873.

49. Nofarther loans were made. On the last twenty-four hours of appraisal for 1985, the sum,owed by the plaintiff in error, harmonizing to the exchange rates so predominating, amountedto R1,195,199.33. A farther autumn in the value of the Rand against the DM duringthe 1985 twelvemonth had increased the liability of the plaintiff in error by R464,816.68.

Theplaintiff in error claimed the R464,816.68 as a tax write-off from income in the 1985 twelvemonth.The plaintiff in error contended that he was entitled as a affair of rule, to claima tax write-off in regard of an unfulfilled loss ensuing from a fluctuation in therates of exchange during the twelvemonth of appraisal in issue. No portion of the loanwas paid or discharged during the 1985 twelvemonth.The Commissioner contended that the words really incurred in s11 ( a ) do nonmean that the outgo must be due and collectible at the terminal of the twelvemonth ininquiry. There must be a clear liability to pay bing at the terminal of the twelvemonthin inquiry, even though the payment thereof may merely fall due in ulterior old ages.

For such a liability to be incurred, it must non be capable to a eventuality, Internet Exploreran unsure future event. It was contended that the foreign exchange losingss,were fanciful losingss and were conditional upon the rate of exchange prevailingat the clip of payment.In the opinion handed down it was held that:When a taxpayer owes an sum expressed in a foreign currency, the sum isowed unconditionally and uncontingently. There is with certainty, an sum ofoutgo incurred. Fluctuations in the rate of exchange can merely consequence thesum or quantification of the certain liability. It is merely the quantificationthat is contingent. The liability itself is absolute.

The unfulfilled foreignexchange loss incurred by the plaintiff in error was deductible from its income unders11 ( a ) . The entreaty was allowed.The instance was taken on entreaty. The issue before the tribunal depended on whether theunfulfilled foreign exchange loss constituted an outgo or loss reallyincurred in the Republic in the production of income as envisaged by s 11 ( a ) .

Corbett CJ pointed out that the existent inquiry was whether by ground of currencyfluctuations the taxpayer had really incurred in the Republic in theproduction of the income, during the twelvemonth of appraisal concerned any surpassingor liability in regard of its foreign loan that could be classed as either anoutgo or a loss in the production of the income.It was held that the loss would merely be deductible in the twelvemonth in which the loanwas repaid, because merely so would such a loss have been really incurred. Thetransition of the loan returns into local currency was simply portion of thepractical mechanics of giving consequence to the loan. The determination in the Caltexinstance was distinguished as being different because it was in regard of theacquisition of stock in trade which had to be quantified at the terminal of the twelvemonthof appraisal. The entreaty was allowed.In ITC 1444 a maker of merchandises entered into understandings with abroadproviders of natural stuffs to provide fixed sums of natural stuffs at fixed ordeterminable monetary values at future day of the months.

This was done to protect the makeragainst monetary value fluctuations and to vouch the handiness of supply. Paymentfor the goods was to be hard currency against paperss.The taxpayer deducted from its 1983 twelvemonth of appraisal sums in regard ofcontracts concluded for the purchase of future supplies of stuffs.

In theopinion handed down, McCreath J. held that:The inquiry to be determined in the instant instance is hencewhether it can be said that by reasoning the contracts to whichI have referred the taxpayer, during the twelvemonth of appraisal stoping31 December 1983, incurred an absolute and unqualified legalliability in regard of the outgo originating out of the saidcontracts or whether such outgo was conditional upon theoccurrence of some future event.the taxpayer was merely needed to pay the purchase monetary value of theproduction stuffs organizing the capable affair of the saidcontracts, against reception of the measures of ladling and billsassociating to the production stuffs to be supplied in footings thereofthe taxpayer was non required to consequence payment until the measuresof cargo and bills in regard of each measure of theproduction stuffs had in fact been received by the taxpayersagent is clear from the grounds of Mr A that no unconditioned legalduty rested upon the taxpayer to consequence payment prior tothe reception of the said paperss.In kernel the opinion took the position that the lone clip that an unconditionedduty arose, was at T


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