Alger Hiss Spy Case Essay Research Paper
Alger Hiss Spy Case Essay, Research PaperThe Alger Hiss Spy CaseDuring the late 19 mid-fortiess, a new anti-Communistic pursuit was in full bellow, this being the one of the most active Cold War foreparts at place. Many panicky citizens feared that Communist undercover agents were sabotaging the authorities and faithlessly corrupting foreign policy. The lawyer general planned a list of 90 purportedly unpatriotic organisations, none of which was given the right to turn out its trueness to the United States. The Loyalty Review Board investigated more than three million employees that caused a state broad security witting. Subsequently, single provinces began ferreting out Communist undercover agents in their country. Now, Americans can non go on to bask traditional freedoms in the face of a pitiless international confederacy known as the Soviet Communism. In 1949, eleven accused Communists were brought before a New York jury for mistreating the Smith Act of 1940, which prohibited cabaling to learn the violent overthrow of the authorities. The 11 Communist leaders were convicted and sentenced to prison.
In 1950, Alger Hiss, once an employee of the Department of State, was convicted of bearing false witness. Born in November 11, 1904, he grew up shabby-genteel in Baltimore, Maryland. Lean and boylike fine-looking, Hiss was a alumnus of Johns Hopkins University and of Harvard Law School and was a jurisprudence clerk to the Supreme Court Justice, Felix Frankfurter and subsequently a clerk for Associate justness Oliver Wendell Holmes.
In 1933, he worked for jurisprudence houses in Boston and on Wall Street, joined Roosevelt & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s disposal, and worked in several countries, including the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Nye Committee, the Justice Department, and, get downing in 1936, the State Department. In the summer of 1944 he was a staff member at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, which created the design for the organisation that became the United Nations. By 1945, he was an advisor to Franklin Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference every bit good as to Joseph Stalin, and Winston Churchill. Later that twelvemonth, Hiss served as moving the impermanent secretary general at the San Francisco assembly that created the United Nations. In 1947, John Foster Dulles, Chairman of the board of Trustees of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, asked Hiss to go that organisation & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s president.Hiss was more than a bright immature administrative official. While working by twenty-four hours on Wall Street, he was active by dark in the International Juridical Association, an alleged communist-front attorneies & # 161 ; & # 166 ; organisation. Equally early as 1942, the Federal Bureau of Investigations received warnings that Hiss was likely a Soviet agent.
The narratives became so relentless that tardily in 1946 functionaries at State softly arranged for him to presume the mostly ceremonial presidential term of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. In 1946 he was elected president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, a place he had held until 1949.In the same twelvemonth, Whittaker Chambers reluctantly appeared before the House Un-american Activities Committee. This House, ran by Nixon, regulated the & # 161 ; & # 167 ; trueness & # 161 ; & # 168 ; of Americans toward the United States. Chambers, a portly rumpled adult male with a melodramatic manner, had been a communist self-professed messenger for a Communist belowground setup. He told the commission that among the members of a secret Communist cell in Washington during the 1930 & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s was Hiss.
To a dwindling set of avid trusters, Hiss was one of the first victims of an anti-Communist craze. Yet, the weight of historical grounds indicated that Hiss was what he persistently denied of all time being a member of the Communist resistance and a Soviet undercover agent. The fact of this challenging instance was his profile that was seemed at odds with the conventional thought of a foul treasonist.Hiss & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s accuser seemed to be his complete antonym. Whittaker Chambers was the merchandise of a stormy and hard matrimony, and he grew up to be a lone wolf. While at Columbia University, he showed literary endowment but was forced to go forth after composing a profane drama.
He shortly lost his occupation at the New York Public Library when he was accused of stealing books. Chambers joined the Communist Party in 1925, subsequently claiming he thought, & # 161 ; & # 167 ; Communism would salvage a deceasing world. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Smith, 245 ] He worked briefly for the Communist newspaper Daily Worker, and so the New Masses, a Communist literary monthly. In 1932 Chambers entered the Communist resistance and began garnering information for his Soviet foremans. Finally, he deserted Communism and became an enthusiastic Christian and anti-Communist. Chambers started working as a brilliant but controversial senior editor for TIME magazine in 1939.Following the sign language of the non-aggression treaty between Nazi Germany and the USSR in August of 1939, Chambers approached Assistant Secretary of State, Adolf Berle, and told him about & # 161 ; & # 167 ; fellow travellers & # 161 ; & # 168 ; in the authorities, including Hiss. Chambers recounted his Communist activities to the FBI in several interviews during the early 1940s, but small took topographic point.
As the Cold War chilled, Communist infiltration of the authorities became a serious issue for both Republicans and Democrats. Because the Democrats were in the White House, the Republicans thirstily took the opportunity to sock the Democrats for being soft on Communism.Summoned as a informant, Hiss denied that he had of all time been a Communist or had known Chambers, a former Communist Party member.
In August of 1948, before a congressional commission, he identified Alger Hiss as a fellow member of the same communist undercover agent ring in Washington, DC, before World War II. Hiss learned about Chambers & # 161 ; & # 166 ; testimony from newspaper newsmans refering the commission & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s aspirations to seek Communists leaders. He appeared before the commission and read from a prepared statement.
& # 161 ; & # 167 ; I am non and have ne’er been a member of the Communist Party, & # 161 ; & # 167 ; [ Hiss, 61 ] he said. Hiss besides denied cognizing Whittaker Chambers. & # 161 ; & # 167 ; So far as I know, I have ne’er laid eyes on him, and I should wish the chance to make so. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Hiss, 64 ] When he was shown a image of Chambers, he responded, & # 161 ; & # 167 ; If this is a image of Mr. Chambers, he is non peculiarly unusual looking. He looks like a batch of people. I might even misidentify him for the Chairman of this committee.
& # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Hiss, 65 ] When Chambers repeated the charge publically, off from the House commission chamber where his words were protected by the congressional unsusceptibility, Hiss sued him for slander.For a piece, it appeared that Hiss had cleared his name. But Richard Nixon, who had been told of intuitions about Hiss long before Chamber & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s commission visual aspect, was non satisfied for this tribunal regulation. He argued that even if the commission could non turn out Hiss was a Communist, it should look into whether he of all time knew Chambers. Nixon convinced the other members to delegate him caput of a subcommittee to analyze farther.On August 7, a session was held at New York City. Chambers provided information about Hiss & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s married woman, Priscilla, who was besides a Communist.
He described the places the Hisses occupied and the old Ford and Plymouth cars that they had owned. Chamberssaid that Hiss persisted on donating the Ford for the usage of the Communist Part even with the security hazard. However, his information wasn?¦t wholly accurate. He described Alger Hiss as shorter than he really was. He wrongly maintained that Hiss was deaf in one ear. However, he besides provided information that showed he knew them instead good.
When Nixon arranged a secret meeting of the two work forces in a New York City & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s Commodore Hotel room on August 17, Chambers repeated his charges with more information, and Hiss repeated his denial. After gazing at the accuser for a spot longer, Hiss agreed that he might hold briefly known Chambers in 1934 as a freelance journalist alternatively under the assumed name, George Crosley. It was really beliing sing that merely a close friend could hold known Chambers as Crosley, which was the pen name he had used while working for the resistance in the 1920 & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s. When asked about the Ford, Hiss claimed that he had given it to Crosley.
Hiss besides said & # 161 ; & # 167 ; Crosley had one time given him an oriental carpet in payment of rent. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Hiss, 146 ] , but Chambers would subsequently claim, & # 161 ; & # 167 ; the carpet was one of the four he had given to & # 161 ; & # 167 ; friends & # 161 ; & # 168 ; of the Communist people. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Hiss, 146 ]The following confrontation was public, held in a congressional hearing room in Washington eight yearss subsequently. The jammed conference room was jammed with witnesss, wireless broadcasters, and camera operators, which gave the instance an extravaganza atmosphere. Nixon and the commission turned up openly hostile to Hiss.
In his earlier statements, Chambers denied being involved with espionage. His contacts in Washington took action merely to command authorities policy, non to dispute it, he had said. It was the same narrative he had told the Justice Department expansive jury. But when confronting pretrial scrutinies for the smear suit, he changed his narrative. Chambers told his attorneies that he could bring forth grounds that Hiss had given authorities paperss to him.
Chambers believed he had saved some paperss in instance he needed to protect himself from requital. & # 161 ; & # 167 ; He sealed the paperss in an envelope and gave them to his married woman & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s nephew, Nathan Levine. Levine hid the envelope in his parents & # 161 ; & # 166 ; Brooklyn place, & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Levitt, 239 ] Chambers remarked.Chambers later produced 65 confidential pages of State Department paperss typed by Hiss & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s typewriter, along with four memos handwritten by Hiss, two strips of developed microfilm, and several pages of handwritten notes.
These were all dated from the early months of 1938. Later, on December 6, 1948, the House commission released pledged testimony by Chambers that Hiss had provided him with certain classified State Department documents for transmittal to a Soviet agent. With two House Un-american Activities Committee Plutos as informants, Chambers radically dug up several axial rotations of microfilm he had hidden in a pumpkin spot on his Maryland farm allegedly known to the federal agents as the & # 161 ; & # 167 ; Pumpkin papers. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; They contained confidential State Department paperss. All this stuff, Chambers said, had been given to him by Hiss to go through along to the Soviets. Nixon received a daze when an functionary at Eastman Kodak said the movie stock dated from 1945, intending that & # 161 ; & # 167 ; Chambers had lied when he said he hidden the movie in 1938. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Levitt, 245 ] Immediately, Nixon phoned Chambers and angrily insisted for an account.In a federal grand-jury probe of the instance, both Chambers and Hiss testified.
Hiss claimed the stuffs were either shams or had come from person else. Hiss was indicted on December 15 on two charges of bearing false witness, peculiarly bear downing that Hiss lied two times. He was accused of lying when he had said that he ne’er gave State Department or other authorities paperss to Chambers.
The second was when he testified that he had had no contact with Chambers after January 1, 1937. There were no espionage charges because the three-year act of restrictions had expired.Because the jurisprudence of restrictions on espionage had run out, Hiss was charged with bearing false witness in the test at the Federal Building in New York City, 1949. His first test lasting for approximately six hebdomads ended in a hung jury. The prosecution emphasized the paperss as & # 161 ; & # 167 ; uncontradicted facts.
& # 161 ; & # 168 ; Chambers said that Hiss took the paperss place from his office so his married woman could type the transcripts. Hiss so returned the masters to his office and gave him the transcripts. Chambers had the transcripts photographed for his Soviet animal trainers. Alger Hiss & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s defence focused on his repute including a university president, some noteworthy diplomats and Judgess. However, his defence pictured Chambers as an insane prevaricator who could hold acquired the microfilmed paperss through many different channels.Capitalizing upon the ensuing tumult, Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin charged that Hiss had a list of about 57 work forces loyal to Communism still in the State Department in February 1950.
However, a subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee could non happen even one, but McCarthy continued on to other sensational charges. He proved absolutely unable to confirm his accusal, and many Americans, including President Truman, began to fear that the Red-hunt was turning into a witch-hunt. Hiss was found guilty at a 2nd exhausting test, which ended in early in 1950 and finally served 44 months at the federal prison in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. In 1950, Truman vetoed the McCarran Internal Security Bill, which had the power that authorized the President to collar and confine leery individuals during an internal security exigency.Richard Nixon benefited from these tests because it made him hold & # 161 ; & # 167 ; a touch of credibility. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Levitt, 304 ] His function in the Hiss instance assisted him to procure a place in the Senate. Two old ages subsequently Nixon became Dwight D. Eisenhower & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s frailty president.
Nixon would ever see the Hiss instance a specifying minute in his calling and included it as & # 161 ; & # 167 ; the first six crises he described in his political memoir of the same name. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Levitt, 306 ] However, the Watergate Scandal in 1972 forced Nixon to vacate the presidential term. From this event, the autumn gave some belief to a broad scope of confederacy theories affecting bogus typewriters, bogus microfilms, and other forgery engagements.After functioning more than three old ages of a five-year prison sentence, Hiss was released in 1954 and returned to private life, still asseverating his artlessness. He worked as a letter paper salesman after his release because he was barred as a criminal from practising jurisprudence. He helped the stalwarts who hunted new grounds that might turn over his strong belief, which ne’er happened. He attempted to hold his instance appealed.
He petitioned the Supreme Court for a 3rd clip in 1978, but they had declined to hear his instance of vulgar unfairness. However, the Massachusetts Supreme Court restored his right to pattern jurisprudence subsequently in 1975. Alger Hiss died on November 15, 1996, at the age of 92. & # 161 ; & # 167 ; He was one of the century & # 161 ; & # 166 ; s longest-suffering victims. & # 161 ; & # 168 ; [ Smith, 435 ] Still, a half-century after it started, the Alger Hiss Spy instance remained a political isolating line.