Alan appraisal”, bringing together material from the

Alan Jenkins, 2013 in his paper “A Critical review of the work  on “The Social Context and Politics ofAppraisal”  Journal of Management Studies  has accomplisheda critical review of our knowledge of “the politics of performanceappraisal”, bringing together material from the different literatureswhich have tackled this problematic phenomenon. Thespecial place of political action within these processes is underlined and thedifferent levels at which politics need to be considered in research areoutlined. Research on politics is considered and shown to lack an adequateconsideration of the social relations involved in the reciprocal interactionsbetween PA tools and processes and user’s interpretation and manipulation ofthem. Such a perspectiveviews management tools and systems as socially designed and highly influentialon the attitudes and behaviours of those using them but also – and crucially -as malleable when users put them to use and “appropriate” them in their ownway. This review of the “social context and politics of performanceappraisal”, while not pretending in any way to be exhaustive, hasattempted to raise the essential questions that its analysis poses, to bringtogether a variety of literatures, and to point out some of their strengths andweaknesses.

Emphasis was placed on two aspects of the overall area, each ofwhich has generated a distinct literature; on the one hand, the “politics ofdiffusion and system change” and on the other “the politics of rating Dr.Lalita Mishra 2014  “AResearch Study on Employee Appraisal System Case of Hong Kong and ShanghaiBanking Corporation (Hsbc Bank)” International journal of Business andmanagement Invention has a view thatthe employee appraisal system in Hong Kong and shanghais Banking Corporationwhich is formerly known as HSBC Bank. The aim of the study involves in developingthe company as well as to satisfy the Employees and therefore, this researchstudy is conducted for the same reason of the effects of the appraisal system.The aspect of human resources is the most important and vital part of bankingand service sector. The well efficient work force is needed in the industry soas to grow in the competitive world. The objective of the studyis to analyse the overall system of performance management and system ofappraisal for the HSBC Bank. The study conducted in the bank for the context tothe satisfaction level of the workforce and it has to be maintained to evaluatethe performance of the organization repeatedly.     In this scenario HSBCas a banking sector requires a coordination between the Training and humanresource management in order to achieve the purpose of the study.

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The performancemanagement of the company plays an important role for the implementation offurther plans within the organization. There are many theories that support themotivational factor that which can be allied to the study and importance isgiven to the training and development department in the organization. HSBCexecutes these theories throughout the organisation. The proper significance ofthese two factors can be understood by the data analysis part of the researchstudy. There is a requirement of performance appraisal and management for thecompany but at the same time, it also has the requirement for money to investinto the methods of appraisal and training development programs. The research work can beconducted to identify the appraisal system of the Employee and otherimplications for the commercial banks such as Dutch and Barclay’s bank forIndian emerging market in which the research study also acts as a base for thefuture research study.

The case can be useful for the research study of variouscompanies. In the context of the research the success requires a process andeffect of appraisal system on Employee will require examining using theattrition rate and other data of the organization. Gerry Ledford, Ed Lawler, George Benson,2016 “A study on cutting Edge Performance management Practices” at Centrefor Effective Organisation Performance Appraisals are an imperative part of HRMsystems within organisations. According to a study carried out by the CharteredInstitute of Personnel Development (CIPD), 81.3% of organisations surveyed werecarrying out performance appraisal in their organisation.

A total of 60completed surveys, 83% were returned completed. The findings of the studyrevealed that overall the employees were happy with having to completeperformance appraisal, but there is still some work to be done in improving thesystem and making it more successful and rewarding. There are a few elements ofthe current system that are limiting the effectiveness of the appraisal; theorganisation is also missing some of the vital elements that are needed in aneffective performance appraisal. ‘Increasingly, companies are relying on theirhuman assets – the knowledge, competence and capabilities of the workforce – asa source of competitive advantage’ .The assessment of employees’ performance isone of the most common practices in almost every organisation, and soperformance appraisal is an essential procedure for the better performance ofemployees and the organisation itself. Many new businesses and various organisations regularlyuse a different performance appraisal scores determine the distribution of pay,promotions, and other rewards provided a few organisations provide and alsoevaluate how employee perceptions of performance appraisal impact the employeeattitude and performance. The researcher has conducted the dissertation on howeffective performance appraisals systems are for the employees who are involvedthe appraisal. The Effectiveness of the appraisal system may else they would haveeither a positive or negative effect on the employees and the organisation.

Theaim of this study is to analyse the effects of the performance appraisal systemfrom employees’ view. The cause of ineffective appraisal is the dislike thatboth the appraiser and appraisee have towards each other and the process.Performance Appraisal remains as the most emotionally charged procedures.Managers hate to give them and Employees hate to receive them. Many managersand supervisors are unwilling to make accurate evaluations of subordinatesbecause they do not want them to be hurt. Where the consequence of a lowevaluation is termination, no pay increase, an unpleasant work assignment, orno promotion, managers are reluctant to be precise highlights the importance ofgiving appraisals based on facts, not just feelings and suggests the best wayto do this is by measuring performance by surveys, on the job observation, peergroup feedback and results against targets. This is important to consider inestablishing what an effective performance appraisal is.

The appraisal will notbe accurate if the manager carrying out the appraisal is having difficulty in givingfeedback honestly and truthfully. Because of the emotional variability involvedin such processes, accuracy is something which will seldom be achieved. The findings ofthe research have shown that the Performance Appraisal system in theorganisation does contain many of the important elements that make the appraisalsystem effective, but all these elements are intermittent and not present inevery appraisal that is carried out. The analysis of the survey responses hasrevealed that according to the employees, Performance Appraisal is effective.They system is a tool that motivates staff and improves their performance.

Theorganisations appraisal also includes majority of effective performanceappraisal objectives. Every system has its own flaws and needs a lot ofimprovement to get it to where it has to be, as it is going in the rightdirection and has some positive results.   Muhammad Zohaib Abbas IOSR Journal of Business and Managementin his paper titled “Effectiveness of performance appraisal on performance of employees” hascontributed to elaborate that how Pakistani organizations pursue performanceappraisal system. In this way, gap in literature has been filled regardingperformance appraisal in Pakistani organizations. The results of this study arebased on the survey findings conducted with employees of several organizations.In this way, empirical contributions have been made by the researcher toelaborate effectiveness of performance appraisal system and its impact onperformance of employees. The main objective of the study is to understandeffectiveness of performance appraisal in the organizations.

Specifically,factors influencing performance appraisal have been identified in the study.Furthermore, this study also aimed to elaborate the influence of appraisal onemployee performance in Pakistani organizations. Finally, critical challengesinvolved in the performance appraisal system will also be evaluatedappropriately. For collecting data, survey technique was used in this study.

For this reason, a sample was used in the study. This sample was selected fromdifferent organizations of the Pakistan. This sample was selected fromdifferent industries i.e. banking, manufacturing and services. In this respect,non probability sampling technique was used in the study so that no preferencecan be made in the sample selection. On this basis of non probability sampling,a sample of 250 employees was selected from different organizations ofPakistan.  The study wasbased on the evaluation of effectiveness of performance appraisal in Pakistaniorganizations.

The study was conducted through survey analysis conducted withthe employees of Pakistani organizations. In addition to this, the results alsoreflect that all study variables are significant except relationship amongpeers and supervisors regarding performance appraisal process. The results ofthe study provide strong understanding about that employees and their fairperception about performance appraisal system. This reveals that respondentsthink that performance appraisal outcomes are accurate and significant towardsemployee performance. In conclusion, the study deduces and reflects thatperformance appraisal impacts performance level of employees.

The futureprospects of study reveal that its generalizability is low because of a smallsample. Therefore, future researchers have option of expanding the scope ofstudy by using the large and diverse sample. In addition, they can alsohighlight differences in performance appraisal followed in different industriesof Pakistan.  Jean Thomas,2006 in his Paper Titled “Performance Appraisal Effectiveness Analysis” by statesthe function of performance appraisals is to help employees develop so they cancontribute more effectively.

In order for the employees to develop and learnthey need to know what they need to change, where they have fallen short, andwhat they need to do. If the supervisor assigns a not satisfactory on a scaleof 5, it does not convey much information to the Employee regarding the areasof improvement. It just says the manager is dissatisfied with something.

Inorder to make it meaningful and promote growth, far more information must beadded to the appraisal process and the related information should betransparently shared with the employee.  It is important that when, looking at theorganizational climate, which means taking a closer look at what is happeningin and around in the HR scenario of the various organization. It is essentialto work on because this environment affects the organization and the employeesdirectly or indirectly. In order to develop employees and to make them becomeeffective contributors to the goals of an organization, we need to have a clearview of what an effective contribution would look like. Organization climatehas a major influence on human performance through its impact on individualmotivation and job satisfaction. It does this by creating certain kinds ofexpectancies about what consequences will follow from different actions.Individuals in the organizations have certain expectations which depend upontheir perceptions as to how the organization climate suits to the satisfactionof their needs andEmployees are thevaluable assets of any organization.

The study is an attempt to a betterunderstanding of the various systems prevailing in the organization. Based onthe overall analysis it can be concluded that the good HRD climate wasprevalent in the organizations surveyed. For the organisation the EmployeesPerformance is important to focus on various aspects of the HRD climate andother systems that are prevalent in the organization. Dr.S.Jansirani “A Study on PerformanceAppraisal System at Wipro Infrastructure Engineering Pvt Ltd” states that theoperative function in the human resource department are analyzed with thecontribution of employees and their opinion about the function performed by theemployees and their opinion about the function performed by the HR Departmentin Wipro Infrastructure Engineering Pvt Ltd, Chennai. The employees in differentorganization are interviewed and related data’s are collected through the toolfor research. The data’s are analyzed through the statistical methods like percentageanalysis and chi-square method.

From the statisticalinference were drawn, and based on the inference it is found that most of therespondents fells that the performance appraisal system done by theorganization is comfortable and process is easier. From the study it is foundthat they are enriching their knowledge with appraisal system and necessaryfindings are made and suggestions were given. Within a short span of time theemployees are aware about the policies that are implemented by the Organisationand also it gains the goodwill of the employees. Thus the study is mainly focuson performance of the employee among executives, and their opinion efficientlyand effectively. The different parameters are framed in the ranking method of theperformance appraisal technique and group discussion can be made among and withalso various authorities. Secondly, the techniques used for performanceappraisal are very traditional which is to be modernized in future for goodprospect of the employees.

Increase the awareness level of employees during theperformance appraisal period. It will be better if the management providesincentives to employees so it will boost in their work and productivity andalso extend the probation period up to 2 years. Separate rating committee to befixed during the appraisal period.

So that there is no rating biases andpersonal prejudice will occur. The performance rating is very helpful formanagement to provide employee counselling during the appraisal. Performanceappraisal is based on appraisal system and the rating method helps the HRD tofix increment for workers and make them retained in the organization.Supervisors should maintain cordial relationship with workers and offersrecognitions of the employee’s efforts and provide guidance to workers. Duringthe appraisal period provide a good communication between top management andbusiness goals to staff so that the desired target of the organization can beachieved through performance appraisal.

Employee comments and suggestion to beconsidered during the appraisal. It will be better if the management provideperformance and potential appraisal rewards regularly. Danny mackinnon “Learning, innovation and regionaldevelopment: a critical appraisal of recent debates” states that A resurgence of interest in the regionas a scale of economic organization has been apparent within economic geographyover the past decade or so. In view of the apparent shift towards a’knowledge-driven economy’, the capacity of regions to support processes oflearning and innovation has been identified as a key source of competitiveadvantage.

This paper provides a critical appraisal of recent work oninnovation, learning and regional development, situating this within itsintellectual context. We need to focus on knowledge and learningis highly relevant, much of the literature fails to adequately ground itsarguments in empirical enquiry and also tends to underemphasize the importanceof wider extra-local networks and structures. In conclusion, we offer somedirections for further research. Dr.John Sullivan, “Top 50 Problems people face with the Appraisal”states that the conversations with HR leaders andemployees, the talent management process that suffers from the most disdainaround the world is the performance appraisal. It’s one of the few processesthat even the owners of the process dread. If everybody hates the process, butit still it’s done nearly everywhere, you might assume some kind of governmentregulation that requires it, but in this case there is no such regulation.

Thelegal justification is given to and just in case for termination and otherdisciplinary action is taken. In case of the justification used, no matter howstrong the design was and hence most performance appraisals are executed so badlythat they may actually harm a legal case. A major labour law firm was foundthat among the random sample of performance appraisals conducted in a retailenvironment, a majority would damage the employer’s case. Many organisationsignore the effects of performance appraisals and later they realise through it,but it’s hard to do but when the organisation finds out how incredibly the expensivethe process of Appraisal system can cause a major effect on the Performance ofthe Employees. The Research findings, which includes a supervisors preparationtime, work time, HR processing time, opportunity costs, and advances intechnology, still puts the process cost at over very high for every employeeper year. If the organisation chooses to take on the challenge of changing theemployee’s performance appraisal process, the first step is to fully understandthe problems associated with the Appraisal system and the major impacts that itcan produce.

         BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.     Alan Jenkins , A Critical review of thework  on “The Social Context and Politicsof Appraisal” in Journal of Management Studies, Vol 26, No 5, pp 499-517 2.    Dannymackinnon “Learning, innovation and regional development: a critical appraisalof recent debates” 2002 Volume: 26 issue: 3, page(s): 293-311 3.     GerryLedford, Ed Lawler, George Benson “A study on cutting Edge Performancemanagement Practices: Ongoing Feedback , Rating Reviews, Crowd-Sourced Feedback, Jan 2016 at Centre for Effective Organisations 4.     Dr.S.Jansirani, ” A Study on Performance Appraisal System at Wipro Infrastructure EngineeringPvt Ltd” IOSR journal of Business and management ,Volume 9, Issue  3     pp08-23 5.

     JeanThomas, “Performance Appraisal Effectiveness Analysis” in IOSR journal 2006               Volume 30, Issue 8 6.     Dr.JohnSullivan, 2013 ” Top 50 Problems people faced with the Appraisal” 7.     Kumari& Malhotra, “Analyzing the effect of Performance Appraisal Techniques inMotivating employees in Reliance Jio” 2012 ISSN: 2454-1362 8.

     Dr.LalitaMishra, ” A Research Study on Employee Appraisal System Case of Hong Kong andShanghai Banking Corporation(Hsbc Bank), International journal of Business andmanagement Invention, Volume 2, Issue 2 pp 60-67 9.     MuhammadZohaib Abbas, “Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal on Performance of Employees”,IOSR journal of Business and management , Volume 16, Issue 6               pp 173-178 


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