Agricultural: of classification that significantly focuses on
Agricultural: Land UseQuestion 1Soil ClassificationIdeally, soils are a very complex natural resource and thisnecessitates grouping on the basis of chemical, physical and biologicalproperties. The soil is grouped into units that can be easily geo-referencedand mapped. In particular, soil is systematically categorized on the grounds ofdistinctive features and the measures that directs choices in use. The variouscombinations of air, water, organic materials, and other substances leads todifferences in soils features. Classification of soils is critical because ithelps in the identification of certain type of soil, and hence determine thesuitable plants in the area. Classifications integrates the elements oftaxonomy, but it further involves thegrouping of soils in relevance to the limitations that influences definitepractical purposes, for example, limitations that affects buildingfoundations(Shabani 553).
On the other hand,soil taxonomy focuses on establishing the hierarchies of classes that allows tocomprehend, as completely as possible, to the connection among soils andbetween, providing the factor resulting to their character. Taxonomy is anarrower aspect of classification that significantly focuses on relationshipsand serves as a multicategorical system. As well, it provides taxa for allsoils in a given landscape and enable adjustment meant to accommodate newknowledge with a minimum of disturbance. Similarly, land classificationutilizes land (soils) characteristics and its productive capacity to determinecategories, reflecting quality classes, and capability classes or grade(Heidhues 15). Land classification operates as the reclamation system thatplaces land into different units or classes in regards to their suitability forsustained farming and particularly irrigation. Specifically, the various classes are differentiated by productivitywith the first class being the most productive (Mackenzie, Keppel and Hamish123).Likewise, land evaluation relates to rating and placingsoils into groups ranging from the best to the least appropriate (suitability)for definite agricultural utilization. In concepts, evaluation necessitatesmatching of the ecological and control needs of pertinent types of land usewith its qualities while taking local economic and social considerations intoaccount.
Land suitability utilizes classes to show the various degrees ofsuitability and specifically the fitness of a various type of lands for adesignated use. Suitability largely accentuates on the adaptability of acertain area for specified purposed of land. Further, it is based on differentlevels and stakeholders involvement in ensuring the integration of diversevalues and ideas.
Equally, the effective utilization of land resources isachieved by establishing a land-user driven participatory approaches (Shabani553).Question2Soil mapping can be improved by utilizing the ever-emergingdigital technologies. This provides analternative means of mapping the soil in which distinctive properties arecorrelated to ancillary information, for example, deriving it from digitalelevations models as well as remote sensing imagery and by utilizinggeostatistics to interpolate the soil between views at the specific pointlocations (Hartemink, McBratney and Maria 35). Further,soil mapping can be improved by developing an explicit or specific aim such assuitability for certain plants, appropriateness of the irrigation method to be adopted,risks of erosion or related environmental problems. Subsequently, this can helpin obtaining definite resolutions on the given purpose of the soil.
Inutilizing the general purpose surveys, soil mapping can be improved byproviding the foundation for multiple users, some which have not yet bediscovered (Lagacherie, McBratney, and Voltz 25). Instead of utilizing the conventional methods of makingseveral observations on the grid to know the kind of soils available, mappingcan be augmented by utilizing one or two strategically identified points in thelandscape to make observations and inferences (Hartemink, McBratney andMaria37).The customization of soil mapping is of paramount importance in obtainedthe most related information for purposes of planning. By developing or usingdigital technologies in soil mapping, it can help in detecting the subtlechanges that occurs in the soils. This may include filling of wet areas,modifications to hydrology and mechanical changes. The different soil maps obtainedover time can be continually assed and compared with the new ones when makingthe final analysis (Kumar 153).
It should focus on specificity, visualization,synthesis and multiple-dimensional modelling of the soils in definite areas. Similarly, it can beimproved by facilitating access to information, and hence promote rationalutilization of the soil features provide. Integrating the working scale, therelevant information to be represented, quality of definition and distinctiveunit of delimitation can help in getting diversified knowledge, which iscritical in the planning and achievements of the desired objectives (Gurkan3609).
Most notably, the interpretativecapacity of the individual or groups utilizing the information available can beassessed on the bases of the number of inferences made. Productivity of theplanning process can be improved by developing a system of soil classificationthat works in conjunction with soil mapping. Mapping should be based primarilyon 3-dimensional grid view that shows the properties of soils in a multipleperspectives. Soil mapping can be complemented by establishing statisticalmodels that have the capacity to predict information about a piece of landbased on samples taken from different locations on the land (Kumar 159).Question3Agreeably, land provides an environment of agriculturalactivities, but it is also critical for the improvement in management ofenvironment. This includes source operations for gases, recycling of nutrients,enrichment and treatment of impurities, transmission and purification ofelements in the hydrologic cycle, and particularly water. Sustainable landutilization involves the operations that aims at promoting a fair and balanceddistribution of land, water, biodiversity and multifarious environmentalresources between the different competing claims in the efforts to securecurrent and future need of human beings (Gurkan 3603).
Sustainable land utilization focuses onharmonizing the complementary goals of enabling environmental, economic andsocial prospects to the advantage of the existing and future prostrates and atthe same time maintaining and improving the quality of resources in the land.This helps in utilizing land resources to meet the variations in human needsand promoting the perennial function of the numerous land resources. Ideally,sustainable land utilization is a fundamental aspect of agriculturaldevelopment in the world (Schubert 25). Sustainable growth in agriculture, conservation of naturalresources as well as promotion of sustainable land utilization areindispensable in the world’s growth. It combines technologies, policies, andoperations pointed at incorporating socioeconomic ethics with environmentalissues. Consequently, sustainable land utilization helps in maintain andimproving production, and reduce degree of production threat while augmentingsoil capacity to buffer against degradation processes. Further, it protects theusefulness of land resources and preclude dilapidation of soil and water quality(Alesso 7). To ensure its effectiveness,sustainable land utilization promotes economic viability, social acceptabilityand guarantee access to the benefits from increased management of land.
Thesustainable use of land resources is based on global policies. Sustainabilityis achieved through the mutual efforts of those directly accountable for themanagement of resources. This necessitates a global policy that empowers usersof land to utilize it effectively by holding them responsible for inappropriateland uses. Economic and environmental interests are integrated comprehensivelyin the realization of sustainable land utilization. Environmental concern arefaced with equal significance to economic performance in assessing the outcomeof development programs and mounting reliable indicators of the environment.
Intensification of agriculture majors on achieving ecologically balanced landutilization that achieves economic and environmental gains (Breckle58).Question4A representative soil is that which covers a subsection ofevery pollutants of a given population in precisely the same amount as they areavailable in in the specific population. This implies that a representativesoils offers a correct and defined estimates of the actual contaminant applicationin the defined population. The soil variability plays a critical role in thedetermination of the appropriate representative soil (Alesso 22). The mostrepresentative sample includes the features of interest for the definitepopulation with little number is errors.
A perfect soils is simply soil thathave all the necessary requirements such as nutrients to support the growth ofseveral plants. Both type of soils contains matters that increases fertilitywhile a friendly environment for beneficial microorganism. Both soilsrepresentative and perfect soils are a product of the various processesinvolved in assessing soil fertility and arriving at the correctrecommendations (Pachepsky and Rawls 53). Perfect soil is rich in humus, which results from thecontinuous decomposition of various materials such as leaves, grass clippings,and compost.
Equally, the soils are loose and fluffy, with adequate air that isessential for plan roots. They have plenty of minerals that are needed for thevigorous growth of plants. The soils sampling is based on the chemical testing,which measure the status of nutrients in the soil. Soil testing initiates bycollecting a sample to represent the field and thus a perfect soil is generatedfrom the processing if the representative soil. The testing of either soils isbased on the pigment, roughness, structure, response, consistence, mineral andchemical configuration, and alignment in the soil profile. In both types ofsoils, the satisfactory design of a substance depend the accuracy with whichthe various soil parameters are acquired. Additionally, the identification ofthe perfect soil depends on the accuracy with which representatives soilsamples are acquired.
The sampling process takes into consideration on the sizeof soil to enable the combination of the representative particles, fissuringand fracturing. Representative soil helps in deciding a perfect soils in a poolof other soils (Barth and P L’Hermite 78). The representative soil identifies the perfectsoil by measuring the residue of plants and animals, which serves as thereserve for nutrients. Perfect soil is based on the measure of acidity oralkalinity obtained from the representative sample since it influences nutrientsavailability. The degree of cation exchange capability in a representativesample determines the capacity of soil to grip nutrients and the soil texture,which is quintessential of a perfect soil. A perfect soil is detected from acontinuous management of the various types of heterogeneity and errors inrepresentative samples to avoid any miscalculations. Again, a perfect soil canbe viewed as the end product of the numerous testing processes involved in therepresentative soils. Obtaining a representative soil is the first step inselecting, collecting and processing a perfect soil.