According to the mitigation of environmental damage,
According to Ashrafet al., (2011), sand mining is the process of extractingsand from the site where the material is located. Sand mining is done tofulfill the demands of several projects such as the construction ofinfrastructures, creation of artificial islands and to mitigate flooding incoastal areas. Countries that are involved in sand mining are developed anddeveloping countries like the Philippine, China, Malaysia, India, Italy, etc.
,as found in the book of Padmalaland Maya (2014). Projects involving the extraction ofsand (Ashrafet al., 2011) are essential in improving the economy ofthe area. However, sand mining has an impact towards the environment. Theprocess has been directly linked to the disruption of ecosystem cycles that arefound alongside sand mining sites. Ecosystems are disrupted through a series ofeffects such as destruction of bird habitat, slower growth rate of vegetationand the change of water qualities. Basing on the study of Sreebhaand Padmalal.
, (2011), bodies of water are more likely toexperience the negative effects of sand mining. One of the problems that can bederived from sand mining is sedimentation. As stated by Loughmanand Welsh (2010), sedimentation results to a decreasedwater quality and altered water properties. The elevated rate of sedimentationoccurs when the land disruption through mining increases.
Eventually, the numberof organisms that is situated on high turbidity levels experiences a decline.Locally, Philippines have been involvedwith the mining business (Verbrugge,2015), both in illegal and legal terms. Both legal andillegal mining businesses have distinct impacts on the surrounding environmentbut legal firms have higher regulations and restrictions than illegal processesthat lead to the mitigation of environmental damage, depending on the area ofthe business covered. In the case of sand mining businesses, the Philippines isalso involved in the sand trade, specifically with black sand extraction, asdiscussed by Chaussardand Kerosky (2016). Black sand is mined to obtain magnetite,a material found in black sand beaches and used for industrial purposes.
Mostsand mining companies worldwide have mining permits but in the Philippines,mining operations are illegal. The negative effects being mentioned in thereport was land subsidence, which deteriorates shoreline ecosystems andincreases the risk of exposure on typhoon-related threats. Inthe study of Chapmanet al., (2014), freshwater fish that are found alongsideriver sand mining sites are studied. Sand mining has a negative effect onfishes and all parameters that were considered in the study were affected thatinclude feeding behavior, spawn rate and species diversification. The studytested sediment-catching devices and found out that properly installedsediment-control fences were efficient (73-80%) than sediment traps and basins(40-52%).
The study implied that there is a need to study sediment-controldevices due to low scores on tested parameters but additional studies areneeded due to the lack of information towards mitigation of the effects of sandmining. Anotherstudy of deLeeuw et al., (2010) studies the impacts of sand mining inPoyang Lake, found in China. The study analyzed the extraction of sand in sandmining companies in Poyang Lake through satellite imagery and found out thatthe rate of sand extraction was 236 million m3 per year. Inenvironmental context, the presence of sand mining in China had resulted insedimentation (9.
7 x 106 m3 per year) which impacts the biodiversityof Poyang Lake. The study suggests that it has been caused by the increaseddemand of sand that resulted from the increasing GDP of China. It was predictedthat the demand of sand in China will increase from 2 to 4 m3 per year. Bayramand Onsoy (2015) studied the effects of sand and gravelmining of surface water in Giresun Province, found in Turkey.
The waterindicators that were analyzed are turbidity, electrical conductivity, dissolvedoxygen, pH, suspended sediment concentration, water hardness and the amount oftrace metals. It was different from the study of Chapmanet al., (2014) since some parameters reported nodifference in relation electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, waterhardness and the amount of trace metals. However, both studies reported the changeof turbidity and suspended sediment concentration which are all effects ofsedimentation. In Pereira(2012), the report discusses the effects of sand miningtowards water. The effects that are present are dredging of the water table andincreased erosion rates which results in the loss of marine habitat and thedespeciation of marine ecosystems. The rapid expansion of sand mining is due tothe increased demand, also found in deLeeuw et al.
, (2010). In economical context alone, China isthe top importer of sand with a trade value of 6.7 billion US dollars andGermany being the top exporter which allocates a budget of 2.7 billion USdollars. In total, global importation and exportation trade values are 40.3billion US dollars and 31.2 billion US dollars respectively.
The high demandfor sand is proportional to increased destruction caused by sand mining firms. Dueto the negative impacts brought by sand mining, the effects can be regulatedthrough proper law implementation. In the Philippines, (Raymundo,2014) mining laws have been passed by the government whichrevolves along the main law (The Philippine Mining Act of 1995) that controlsall mining operations and provides restriction to certain places and methods topromote environmental safety. The prevalence of illegal and improper sandmining in the Philippines can be controlled by stricter laws and increasing jobopportunities to diminish illegal and small-scale mining businesses. Anothermitigation processes that will decrease environmental harm (sedimentation)dealt by sand mining (Hegde,2010) are the construction of artificial reef systems,seawalls and zoning of the affected areas are essential in coastal sand mininglocations. In freshwater ecosystems, (Wang2014) sediment-control dams can be utilized to decrease theamount of sedimentation in bodies of water. The sand mining industry possessespositive implications with regards to economical prowess of a country but thedemand of sand inhibits negative impacts towards ecosystems.
Sedimentationcaused by mining is one of the contributors of damages inside marine ecosystemsand the effect is worsened by the increasing number of mining operations,whether illegal and legal. Although sand mining presents several problems,establishing a balance on sand extraction and proper implementation of laws andregulations are needed to improve economic and environmental statuses.