According is approached on an individual level

According to World Health Organization (2017), cardiovasculardisease (CVD) is the number one cause of deaths worldwide. Although one cannotisolate a single cause of CVD, stress is a major contributor and a majorfeature of modern living (Marks et al., 2005). Stress and stress-motivated behaviourscan cause psychological distress and physiological reactions that includeheightened blood pressure and heart rate (Sarafino, 2005, p.7). 64Cardiovascular measures are the most widely used psychophysiologicalmeasures (Johnston, French, Bonetti & Johnston p.

365) some include cardiacstress tests and electrocardiograms. Collectively these tests record heart ratevariability and blood pressure as a reaction to stress andpsychological stimuli (Infantolino & Miller, 2017). 44Inthis context, health psychology is concerned with interactions betweenbiological, social and psychological factors concerning cardiovascular health.

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From a biological perspective, tests have revealed when plaque is present in coronaryarteries and veins, it is a risk factor, knowing this, health psychologists candevice plans and provide tools needed for lifestyle changes, which influenceliving with or preventing CVD. Cardiovascular psychophysiological measures reveal that high levels of stress from work and life events areassociated with high incidences of heart disease and heart attack (Sarafino,2005, p.9). Stress is approached on an individual level through stressmanagement techniques, cognitive behaviour therapy, relaxation therapy andbiofeedback to prevent the conditioning worsening, adhere to medication andengage in healthy behaviours (Sarafino, 2005,p.14). This can be approached in workplace orhealthcare settings where effects of stress are brought to awareness. From apsychological perspective, health psychologists tackle emotion and motivation, whichplay a vital role in the course of illness especially chronic illness.

CVD canbe disabling and can require changes that need adjustment. Health psychologistscan provide therapy to adjust to psychological challenges and find ways to leada fulfilling life. 191The ways in whichpsychophysiological measures provide us with evidence is endless and theapplications make way for many possibilities.

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