Academic referencing system Essay

Areas covered good in these illustrations:

  • Clear inside informations and information sing the Harvard referencing system are given
  • Explanation of why a referencing system is needed
  • Clear and helpful illustrations of how to utilize the referencing system

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Harvard System of Referencing

Language Explained:

CITING means officially recognizing, within your text, the resources from which you have obtained information.BIBLIOGRAPHY is the list of beginnings you have used.REFERENCE is the elaborate description of the point from which you have obtained your information.

Why is Referencing Necessary?

It is to admit the work of other authors ; to show the organic structure of cognition on which you have based your work ; to enable other research workers to follow your beginnings and take them on to farther information.For these grounds it is really of import that you think of the information needed to mention stuff right when you are transporting out a literature hunt.Always guarantee that you record mentions to stuffs you consult exactly.

Failing to make so could do you extra work when you need to integrate a mention into your bibliography.A standard system of mentioning these mentions ensures an easier system of following academic and other cognition more expeditiously. There are a figure of systems for citing but we recommend the Harvard System as it is normally used in Universities so, for those who progress onto the concluding twelvemonth grade programme, it is a good wont to acquire into now.The bibliography for assignments represents the consequences of your information/literature hunt and you may wish to discourse your hunt method in the text of your composing e.g. in a ‘methodology ‘ subdivision. This is peculiarly relevant when look intoing a peculiar subject, where the research methods would be identified, justified and described.

What is Harvard?

This system developed in the USA and grew in popularity during the 1950 ‘s and 1960 ‘s, particularly in the physical and natural scientific disciplines and more late the societal scientific disciplines.

Over several decennaries it has become the most common system internationally and is often the standard house manner for academic diaries and in many Universities.The Harvard system has advantages of flexibleness, simpleness, lucidity and easiness of usage both for writer and reader. There is no 3rd topographic point to look such as footers and chapter mentions that are characteristics of other systems.

There are three manners in common usage as ways to foreground the cardinal component of a mention ; they are the usage of bold text, underscoring and italics. You should utilize one, and merely one, of these techniques throughout your bibliography.In order to keep consistence in your bibliography you should merely utilize the initial letters of the author ‘s first name ( s ) , even when you have more information. In some instances you may experience that this hides the gender balance of the research base ; in such instances it is possible to mention to the author ‘s full name in the chief text.

Mentioning in the Text

The Harvard system of commendation is the most straightforward method of admiting other people ‘s work, because ab initio all you need to make is advert the writer and day of the month of publication in the text of your work. So, at each point in the text that refers to a peculiar papers, insert the writer ‘s family name and publication twelvemonth.e.

g.The work of Preece ( 1994 ) was concerned to underscore the importance of quality in societal research.The reader can easy turn up the full description of the point you have cited by mentioning to the alphabetical list of mentions ( or bibliography ) provided at the terminal of your study. The system has the advantages of demoing at a glimpse the authorization used, who may good be recognised, and how recent or modern-day the information might be.Note the undermentioned points:

  • In the chief text, initial letters are merely used when two or more writers have the same family name and have published in the same twelvemonth, in which instance initials should place them in order to avoid confusion.

  • Use lower instance letters after the day of the month if mentioning to more than one point published in the same twelvemonth by the same writer.

e.g.The CBI, which has been really influential in raising the public profile of counsel, has itself adopted three really different places on this affair: holding ab initio argued that the callings service should be transferred from LEAs to Training and Enterprise Councils ( CBI, 1989a ) it later appeared to back up the impression that it should be led by LEA-TEC partnerships, and so announced that the TECs should non be straight involved in counsel bringing at all ( CBI, 1993 ) . There has nevertheless been increasing support for the impression of an individual-centred system.

It is important that the CBI speech production on behalf of its employers by and large argued the authoritative broad instance for single pick in the instruction developing market in its study Towards a Skills Revolution ( 1989b )

  • If the writer ‘s name occurs of course in the text, the twelvemonth follows in parentheses.


Customer compatibility direction emphasises the controllability of customer-to-customer interaction in the higher instruction environment ( Rowley, 1996 ) . If the customer-to-customer interaction is good so you will acquire a return visit. It is the aim of effectual client compatibility direction to heighten the service experience. Thus Rowley ( 1996 ) asserts that the ethos of the pupil environment does hold an impact on pupil accomplishment.

Mentioning in the Bibliography

The bibliography appears at the terminal of your work, is organised alphabetically and is grounds of the literature and other beginnings you have used in your research. The first two elements of your mention, i.e. writer and day of the month, constitute the nexus you made in the text.

Thus the reader can travel between the text and the bibliography and hint a right mention.The undermentioned uses a Book mention as an illustration, nevertheless other types of beginnings are referenced in a similar mode. You should utilize the rubric page ( if any ) instead than the papers screen as your authorization.Include the undermentioned information.The order is:

  • Author ( s ) , editor ( s ) or the establishment responsible for composing the papers.

    ( Note: erectile dysfunction. is a suited abbreviation for editor. )

  • Date of publication ( in brackets ) .
  • Title and caption ( if any ) . Underlined, emboldened or in italics ( be consistent throughout the bibliography. )
  • Seriess and single volume figure ( if any ) .
  • Edition if non the first.
  • Topographic point of publication if known.

  • Publisher.
  • Any other relevant inside informations that will help the reader to turn up the mention.


  • Spence, B. erectile dysfunction. ( 1993 ) Secondary school direction in the 1990 ‘s: challenge and alteration. Aspects of Education Series, 48.

    London, Independent Publishers.


  • Mohr, L.B.

    ( 1996 ) Impact analysis for plan rating. 2nd erectile dysfunction. London, Sage.

Sample Bibliography

  • Bennett, H. , Gunter, H. & A ; Reid, S. ( 1996 ) Through a glass darkly: images of assessment. Journal of Teacher Development, 5 ( 3 ) October, pp.


  • Conference on Economic Crime, 2nd. 1977. London School of Economics & A ; Political Science.

    ( 1980 ) Economic offense in Europe Leigh, L.H. erectile dysfunction. London, Macmillan.

  • Fragile Earth, 5. ( 1982 ) South American wetland: Pantanal. Henley on Thames, Watchword Video, [ picture: VHS ]
  • Holland, M.

    ( 1996 ) Harvard system [ Internet ] Poole, Bournemouth University. Available from: & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 22 August, 1997.


  • Now Voyager ( 1942 ) Directed by Irving Rapper. New York, Warner [ Film:35mm ] .
  • Porter. M.A.

    ( 1993 ) The alteration of method in researching postgraduate instruction. In: Burgess, R.G. erectile dysfunction. The research procedure in educational scenes: ten instance surveies. London, Falmer Press.

  • Spence, B. erectile dysfunction. ( 1993 ) Secondary school direction in the 1990 ‘s: challenge and alteration. Aspects of Education Series,48. London, Independent Publishers.

  • Whitehead, S.M. ( 1996 ) Public and private work forces: malenesss at work in instruction direction.

    Ph.D. thesis, Leeds Metropolitan University.

  • World in Action. ( 1995 ) All work and no drama. London: ITV, 21st January, [ picture: VHS ]

Hints and Common Conventions

Ibid. ( Latin ) is used as a ditto alternatively of reiterating the old mention.


  • Lashley, C. ( 1995 ) Bettering survey accomplishments. A competency approach.London, Cassell.
  • Ibid. p.


  • Ibid. p.170

Op. Cit. ( Latin ) is used after an writer ‘s name to intend the same work as last cited for this writer.e.g.

  • Bennett, C. ( 1996 ) Researching into learning methods in colleges & A ; universities. London, Kogan Page.
  • Manger, J.J ( 1995 ) . The indispensable cyberspace information usher. New York, McGraw Hill.
  • Bennett, C.

    op. cit. p.175.

Et Al ( Latin ) normally used as an abbreviation for “ and others ” .


  • Bennett, H et Al. ( 1990 ) Pull offing Education. London, Falmer Press.


Accrington & A ; Rossendale College BA ( Hons ) English


You will observe from the Assessment Criteria ( above ) that to accomplish Upper Second Class Honours ( or higher ) , your work has to be decently referenced. The chief intents of referencing is to do it clear to the reader what your beginnings are, so that other people can happen the stuff that you have used ; and, to do it clear which thoughts, statements, and words are your ain, and which are person else ‘s.In your essays, you will usually happen yourself utilizing other people ‘s work – for case critics and theoreticians.

Sometimes you will be holding with them and at other times you will be reasoning with them. Either manner, you need to admit your beginnings. In some instances, neglecting to admit and decently cite your beginnings can be considered to be plagiarism – which means, go throughing off person else ‘s work as your ain. In academic authorship, and in originative authorship excessively, plagiarism is considered a serious act of misrepresentation. Even a little sum of unwilled plagiarism will take down the class of your essay. Major Acts of the Apostless of plagiarism can do you to neglect.The right signifier of citing to utilize is the Harvard System. Below is a brief sum-up of the chief points.

More inside informations can be found in cusps in the library, and in legion books and websites. This will besides be discussed with you at assorted points during the class.

The Harvard System

All books, articles, web sites etc which you have referred to in your essay, or in your research towards the essay, should be listed at the terminal in a bibliography. They should be put in alphabetical order of family names, in the undermentioned format:

  • SMITH, H ( 1997 ) , Marxism and the Novel, Blackwell Press, London

The rubric should be in italics, if you ‘re utilizing a word-processor.

If you use a conventional typewriter or script, so underscore the rubric.When you mention the book within the organic structure of your essay, there ‘s usually no demand to give the rubric, unless it fits of course into the manner of your sentence. Just give the writer ‘s name ( normally merely the family name ) and the day of the month. For case you might compose:Smith ( 1997 ) argues that Dickens is an over-rated novelist.If you really cite a critic ‘s words, you should give the page figure every bit good. Short quotation marks can be included within your ain sentence, but use citation Markss to clearly tag off the words you ‘re citing from your ain words.

For case:Harold Smith accuses Dickens of making “ non rounded characters but lampoons of peculiar societal types ” ( Smith 1997, p.233 ) .Longer quotation marks are sometimes better put in a paragraph on their ain – in which instance the paragraph should be centred, and does n’t necessitate the citation Markss. Still put the name, day of the month and page figure in brackets at the terminal.

If you use a book in which articles by several different authors have been collected, still put the existent writer ‘s name ( non the editor ‘s name ) into the organic structure of your essay. If you quote from it, give the page figure from the existent book you ‘ve used. Your bibliography at the terminal of your essay should do it clear where you found the article. For case:

  • JONES, G ( 1998 ) , “ Dickens and the Modern Reader ” , in HARRISON, P ( erectile dysfunction ) , Dickens and Victorian Society, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Note that the rubric of the article goes in upside-down commas, non italics. Italics are used merely for rubrics of books.


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