Abstract: of average energy consumption and average

Abstract: Area detection and measuring is one of the fundamentalproblems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) because it mainly relates to thecontinuity and functionality of any routing protocol within Region of Interest(ROI).

 While there are holes in the ROI,Field of movement tracking such as that of animals, people and vehicles can’tbe achieved. Also some phenomena such as fire spreading or water flood can becontrolled by calculating the area of the holes, resulting from the damagedsensor networks. In this paper, a new mathematical wireless sensor hole detectionalgorithm (Wireless Hole Detection) WHD is proposed to accurately estimate theexact amount of coverage holes under random deployment of sensor nodes. WHD isdeveloped for achieving Quality of Service (QoS) in terms of power consumption,and average hole detection time. The dynamic behavior of the proposed WHDdepends on executing  the followingsteps. Firstly, WHD algorithm cuts down the ROI into many cells using theadvantage of the grid construction to physically partition the ROI into manysmall individual cells. Secondly, WHD algorithm works on each cell individuallyby allocating the nearest three sensor nodes to each of the cell’s coordinatesby comparing their positions, WHD connects each cell’s coordinate points with theselected sensor nodes by lines which constructs a group of triangles, then WHD calculatesthe area of upcoming triangles. Repeating the previous step on all the cells,WHD can calculates and locates each hole in the ROI.

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The performance evaluationdepends on the NS-2 Simulator  as asimulation technique to study and analyze the performance of WHD algorithm. Resultsshow that WHD outperforms in terms of average energy consumption and averagehole discovery time as compared with Path Density algorithm (PD) and noVel CoverageHole Discovery Algorithm (VCHDA). Keywords:  Wireless Sensor Networks,WSN holes Coverage, Hole detection.


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