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AbstractThis work isfocused on reviewing the incentives allocated to deployment of BEVs, PHEVs, andFCVs, and their charging/refueling infrastructure.
Although many countries havesupport and incentive programs for EVs, countries/jurisdictions that support BEVsand FCVs at the same time. Japan, South Korea, and China from East Asia, Germany,France, UK, Norway, Denmark, Sweden as representatives of Europe and the stateof California as a representative of North America were considered in thiswork. From the review it was found out some of the investigatedcountries/jurisdictions incentivize vehicles based on their emission which isin favor BEVs. However, some countries/jurisdictions support the purchase ofFCVs with higher subsidies compared to BEVs, a partrt of that can be explained forplanning in the widespread use of hydrogen in the whole energy system and notonly the transportation sector. Regardless of the type and value of incentives,the number of BEVs and PHEVs are considerably higher than FCVs. Based on theanalysis, it was suggested that countries should design incentives in a way toachieve a logical mix of EVs= fleet. This is due to the reason that althoughBEVs, PHEVs and FCVs are competitor technologies in replacing ICEVS, but theyare also complementary technologies for transition toward an emission-freetransportation.IntroductionTransportationsector contributes to a considerable share of energy consumption and GreenhouseGas (GHG) emissions worldwide.
In 2015, 50% of world oil consumption was consumed for road transportation 1.In 2014, 35% of energy was used in the transportationsector (21% of world energy consumption was usedin passenger cars) 1.In 2010, about 14% of worldwide GHG emissions wasfrom the transportation sector 2.However, theshare of the transportation sector in acountry’s GHG emissions varies among the countries all over the world. For instance, in the US, the transportation sector is a major contributor to GHG emissions and accountsfor 27% of GHG emission in 2015 3.
Out of that 27%, 60% of emission is from light-duty vehicles and 23% frommedium and heavy-duty vehicles 4.In China, this share is smaller, andtransportation sector accounted for 6% of emissions in 2012 5.The importantissue regarding the emissions from transportation sector is that the GHGemission emitted from combustion in Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs)is emitted in urban areas where aconsiderable population lives. It should benoted that emission accompanied byICEVs is not just limited to CO2 emissions but these vehicles emitparticulates and also NOx, CO, andhydrocarbons which are considered as local pollutants 6.These emissions affect the local air pollution and may cause health issues inurban areas. Another reasonfor the focus on reducing emissions inthe transportation sector is the potentialfor GHG emissionreduction available in the transportationsector for reducing emission compared to potential in industrial andelectricity sectors. The research and policies in support of renewable energydevelopment in the electricity sector andenergy conservation management in the industrialsector have been in place for a long time. Thismeans that a considerable amount of potential in GHG emission reduction inthose sectors has been already captured.
However, fossil fuels (petroleumand other liquid fuels such as natural gas plant liquids, biofuels,gas-to-liquids, and coal-to-liquids) account for 96 % of energy consumption intransportation sector 7.This is a notable point especially forcountries that have a high percent of emission-free electricity generation capacity and can use that emission-freeelectricity to provide the energy neededin the transportation sector.To cut CO2 emissions by 80% by 2050 (as decided by G8 leadersand the European Union in 2009), a 95% carbon emission reduction shouldhappen in transport sector 6. However, based on theexpected number of passenger cars by 2050 and knowing the emissions and efficiencyof ICEVs, the reduction target for transportation sector cannot be achievedthrough an increase in efficiency of ICEVsalone.
Knowingthis limit, different countries/jurisdictions all over the world have invested in alternative fuel vehicles. As defined by the US Department of Energy, analternative fuel vehicle is “adedicated, flexible fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle designed to operate on at leastone alternative fuel” 8. Biodiesel,electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, natural gas, or propane are considered as alternative fuels 8.
In this work,we are focusing on vehicles that operate on hydrogen and electricity as analternative fuel. We are not considering biodiesel and ethanol as there isuncertainty about the capability of biofuels to fuel the transportation sectorat large scale 6.We are not also considering natural gas and propane as they are considered asfossil fuels like gasoline and diesel although they may have lower emissions.
The focus ofthis work is then on incentives allocated to electric vehicles (EVs). By EVs inthis work, we mean the vehicles that fully or partly move by an electric motor 9.EVs have different technologies.
In this work we are considering three EVtechnologies: