Abstract factors involved in prescribing and medication

Abstract The use of psychostimulants to treat the symptoms of Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past 15 years in the United States. Studies on effects of using medications to treat ADHD in the United States reveal both positive and negative results. Negative includes the symptoms that remove the individual from a classroom setting, being hospitalized multiple times and not being able to function with friends and family. The use of medication brings immediate relief to some of the symptoms of ADHD.

In addition, the effects of the medication is short lived. With understanding and support however, medication and psychotherapy can overcome these obstacles. In addition, the published research information has shown there is no one cure for this disease. The use of stimulants are generally found to render positive results.               Medication is More Effective in Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder             This paper aims to comprehensively and critically review factors involved in prescribing and medication use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD, while focusing on the difficulties facing patients with ADHD seeking treatment (Marinez-Raga, Ferreros, Kencht, de Alvaro, and Carabel, 2016, p. 88). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become one of the most common disorders among children.

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Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention usually begin early in childhood and can continue into adulthood. These things cause impairment stated Manuzza et al. 1997; Barkley et al. 2002; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Hechtman and Weiss 1983 as cited in (Powers, Marks, Miller, Newcorn, and Halperin, 2008).

While treatment of patients with this disorder is based on a multimodal approach that combines medication with specific psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy alone is generally considered an essential and cost-effective element (Martinez-Raga, Ferreros, Kencht, de Alvaro, and Carabal, 2016, p.88). In my opinion, medicating an individual who is diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder would bring stability to that individual’s life. If by chance the diagnosed person is a child, then their everyday life becomes more manageable from a social and educational aspect, teachers are able to carry out their curriculum, and parents will benefit as well. Dr. Loe and colleagues even stated that being treated with psychostimulant has shown significant improvement in children’s behavior. Significant improvements were shown in school although they were short term (Loe and Feldman, 2007).

 Moreover, research was published in Archives of General Psychiatry, 1999 revealed statistical data that supports one’s perspective. The study contained 579 children between 7 and 10 years of age. 20% of the subject pool were females and 20% of the 579 subjects were African Americans. The experiment lasted approximately 14 months and encompassed 4 treatment conditions; medicated group, double-blinded placebo control group, non-double blind group, and the control group. Upon completion of the research, the results revealed that of 289 participants that were assigned to the medicated group, yielded a 74% success rate. As far as the other 26%, extreme side effects prevented subjects from completing the experiment. Research conducted by Polanczyk, Willcutt, Salum, Kieling, and Rhode (2014 ) (as cited in Raga et al., 2017) mentioned this as a common disorder.

An additional research conducted by Kooij, Bejerot, Blackwell, Caci, CasasBrugue, and Capenier (2010) and Lichtenstein, Halldner, Zetterqvist, Sjolander, Serlachius, and Fazel (2012) (as cited in Raga et al., 2017) also concluded treating ADHD with medication has shown symptoms to improve, emotional lability, and patient functioning generally leading to favorable outcomes, such as improved academic or work performance, or reduced criminality.It is very important for those who have been diagnosed with this common disorder to not only seek out medical help but the correct medical help is equally as important. According to Dalsgaard, the importance of ensuring adequate treatment provision for individuals of all ages with ADHD is further underscored (Dalsgaard, Nielsen, and Simonsen 2014a). My interpretation on Dalsgaard’s statement is that those who are diagnosed with ADHD believe that they can treat the condition by any means available. If by chance a patient has been going through years of therapy and the time spent in therapy is not yielding favorable results, then that form of treatment is inadequate and by all means should be discontinued and medication should begin to be administered. Once one makes the decision to take medication there may be a ton of questions that come to their minds, but one undoubtedly crosses every one mind who has been diagnosed with ADHD and that is what medications are available? According to (Szymanski and Zolotor 2001) there are two medicines that provide fast acting and extended release.

The medicine Adderall increases as the dosage is increased, this has a gradual hepatic metabolism of the inactive salts to active forms (Szymanski and Zolotor 2001). Adderall is a drug that has been known to have a success rate for the majority of patients when taken daily (Szymanski and Zolotor 2001)However, opting not to take any medication is very dangerous for those diagnosed with ADHD and for the society in which they dwell in. Living a lifestyle as such will heavily deplete one’s motivation, hope, and inevitably halt them from being successful. As previously mentioned, medication is the most effective means of treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder .

Therefore, critical examination must be completed before administering dosage to patients. For example, there are quite a few ADHD medications on the market but not all of them work the same way. Medication react differently from person to person and for that reason alone examination is necessary. Throughout that examination these are some of the things that should be under consideration, the side effect, the dosage amounts. However, by no means is the medication a cure.

The medication is an assistance mechanism that is designed to help one cope, thrive, and process things into perspective. The moment the medicine has been discontinue then the ability to cope, thrive, and process things are no longer available.      In closing, the purpose of this paper was to comprehensively and critically review factors involved in prescribing and medication use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD, while focusing on the difficulties facing patients with ADHD seeking treatment (Marinez-Raga, Ferreros, Kencht, de Alvaro, and Carabel, 2016, p. 88).

  numerous research has been completed analyzing the pros and cons taking medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although the research was conducted at different times the results yielded significant findings which was medication in fact is the most effective method for treating ADHD. More so, one can conclude that after reading countless professional journals and reviewing the findings of experienced researchers that I hypothesized correctly. For those that are diagnosed with particular disorder I would like to encourage them with words from Gandhi “strength does not come from winning. Your struggles develop your strengths. When you go through hardships and decide not to surrender, that is strength”          References   Barkley RA., Fischer M., Smallish L.

, & Fletcher K. (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder.  Abnormal Psychology, 279–289Biederman J. & Faraone SV. (2005) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet, 366:237–248.Dalsgaard S.

, Nielsen H.,  & Simonsen M. (2014a) Consequences of adhd medication use for children’s outcomes. Health Econ, 37: 137–151.Hechtman L.&  Weiss G.

(1983).  Long-term outcome of hyperactive children. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 53:532–541.Kooij S., Bejerot S., Blackwell A., Caci H.

, Casas-Brugué M., & Carpentier P. (2010) European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD.

 BMC Psychiatry 10: 67Lichtenstein P., Halldner L., Zetterqvist J., Sjölander A., Serlachius E., & Fazel S. (2012) Medication for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and criminality.

Medical, 367. Loe, I., & Feldman, H., (2007).  Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 643–654Mannuzza S., Klein RG., Bessler A., Malloy P.

, & Hynes ME. (1997). Educational and occupational outcome of hyperactive boys grown up. Am Acad Child Adolescent Psychiatry. 1222–1227Martinez-Raga, J., Ferreros, A., Knecht, C.

, de Alvaro, R., & Carabal, E. (2017). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication use: factors involved in prescribing, safety aspects and outcomes. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 8(3), 87–99. Polanczyk G., Willcutt E.

, Salum G., Kieling C., Rohde L. (2014). ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. International Epidemiol, 434–442.Powers, R.

, Marks, D., Miller, C., Newcorn, J., & Halperin, J.

(2008). Child adolescence psychopharmacol.  449–459 Szymanski, M., &  Zolotor, A. (2001).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: management. American Family Physician, v 64, 8-1355  


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