Abstract affect the consumer buying behavior but
Abstract ConsumerBuying Behavior is the area of interest for all the companies. Not for theirupcoming offerings but for their current offerings too. Its continuous analysisis required in order to fulfill the requirement of customers as well as tocompete effectively with the increased degree of competition from directcompetitors and indirect competition.
There are several factors which canaffect the consumer buying behavior but when companies want to analyze itexpensive and Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), the role of packaging found tohave the significant role in affecting consumer buying behavior. That’s whymajor purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of elements of packagingon consumer buying behavior related with the purchase of chocolates which are treatedas Fast Moving Consumer Goods as well as expensive products in India and forthe analysis of packaging elements on consumer buying behavior a structuredclose ended questionnaire was developed through the help of important variablesand methodologies used in the prior research work. However itis difficult to measure the consumer buying behavior related with the purchaseof different brands of one company. Themajor advantage of this research is that this research helps most of themarketers in using packaging in the way it can produce the desired impact ofthe customers of expensive as well as FMCG. Nutritional label and Consumer buying behaviour on chocolatesIntroduction:Weare living in the age of communication.
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Any one of us living anywhere in theworld use different terms, symbols, signs, use different tools for advertisingand prefer different packaging for products in order to satisfy miscellaneousneeds more appropriately. (Gilaninia,Ganjinia and Moradi, 2013)But theadvancement in technology in the age of communication affects almost all typesof human activities and it is also backed by the use of communication and masscommunication (Gilaninia and Sharif,2011) and when marketers want to see their offerings from the point ofview of consumers they found that packaging of goods is also an important toolof visual communication. (Mohammadi,2011) The role ofpackaging is almost a change phenomenon because of the competition, change inconsumer’s life styles and increase in the rate of self service. On the otherhands producers are also taking interest in packaging not only as tool of salespromotion but also because of its impact of impulsive buying and increase inthe market share of the company. (Mutil,2012) Statement of problem:Ithas been observed that marketers are always trying to influence consumer buyingbehavior by use of different marketing mix elements; each and every marketingmix element has its own impact on consumer buying behavior. Similarly packaginghas its own impact on consumer buying behavior, especially on the last stage ofconsumer buying behavior i.e.
purchase decision there is a significant impactof packaging and this impact is more significant in the purchase of fast movingconsumer goods Ø Objectives of research ØSome objectives and major objectives of this research arelisted below: Ø1. To check the impact of packaging of chocolates on consumerpurchase decision Ø2. To determine the effect of visual elements of packaging onconsumer buying behavior associated with chocolates.Ø 3. To check the resultof verbal elements of packaging on consumer buying behavior associated withchocolates.Ø 4.
To check the upshotof demographic variables on the selection of chocolate brand.Ø 5. To compare theimportance of verbal elements of packaging on consumer buying behaviorassociated with two most popular chocolate brands. Ø Objectives :· Toidentify whether nutritional labeling is observed by people while undertakinggrocery and how much awareness do they have?· Todetermine what role nutritional labeling play in marketing of a product throughproduct packaging· Todetermine the importance of nutritional labeling· Tosuggest recommendations on improving nutritional labeling based on researchfindings Packaging:· Developmentof wrappers and covers, for company’s offerings is known as Packaging. (Keller, 2009) the importance ofpackaging can be estimated by its use as most of marketers believes that it isa part of part of marketing mix elements and must be considered as theimportant element in product strategy.
(Kottler,2008) it has significant importance in the product strategy that most ofthe times marketers try to take competitive advantage by using these marketingmix elements over the competing brands. (Keller,2009) · Moreoverpackaging is also an important tool for Brand recognition and for the developmentof Brand associations. (Keller, 2009) andat last it is the toll through which marketers became able to achieve marketingobjectives by fulfilling the desires of consumers through packaging aestheticsin the form of packaging size, packaging shape, packaging color, text used onpackaging, graphics used on packaging and by other functional elements ofpackaging. (Rundh, 2013) · Moreover itis proved by the research that Packaging is evaluated positively by theconsumers if it became able to communicate meaning of the productcomprehensively and consistently.
(Hannele,Kauppinen Raisanen, 2010) When it comes to communication then packagingis also an effective tool which helps marketers in gaining the attention oftheir target market. Through this marketers are not only able to communicatetheir value properly but also became able to grab consumer attention at thepoint of purchase. (Robert & Julie,1998) not only this packaging is the only tool which is helporganizations as well as consumers in fulfilling their requirements regardingproduct storage & product transportation. (Calver, 2007) · Components of Packaging:· Initiallyresearch identified six elements of packaging which includes size of packaging,color of packaging, Text used on packaging, Material of packaging, Graphicsused on packaging and Smell. (Smith andTaylor, 2004) But research work conducted after wards indicates thatpackaging elements are divided into two categories which are visual elementsand verbal elements (Adam and Ali,2014) · Visual Element of Packaging:· Theseelements are the useful tool to influence the emotions of the target market.Marketers can use lot of visual elements of packaging when the product isassociated with the category which requires low customer involvement and customerdo not want to waste their efforts in searching for products (Pinya, 2004) · Size:· The research conducted in the year 2008 proves thatredesigning of packaging increases the rate of consumption, especially when theproduct is available in larger size (Kotler,2008) furthermore increase in size of packaging also indicates betterquality (Smith, 2004) andinfluence the desire to consumer. (Keller,2009) · Moreover,access of new markets can easily be done by the change of packaging.
(Arun; Ankuri; Hitesh; Udit; Deepali, 2012) furthermoreit has been also proved by the research that consumers having small familiesdoes not focuses on large size packs and treat them as waste of product as theamount of product will be more than their requirements (Pinya, 2004) and if does not have longer reliability thenconsumers will not be inclined towards the larger sizes. (Golnesa, 2013) · Graphics: · It not onlyhelps marketers in making their product unique but also helps them inhighlighting their brand name more effectively by maintaining its individualityand identity in shelves. (Smith andTaylor 2004) Use of graphics is helpful in value addition in thephysical appearance of the brand and also improves the exterior by enhancingthe quality of aesthetics. Not only this graphics has the ability to producepositive impact on consumer mood and sometimes graphics matches with the unseengoals or unseen determination and hence will help marketers in enhancing therecall rate of their bands as compared to the competing ones. (Pinya, 2004) · Aqualitative research conducted in the year 2013 identifies that textualelements associated with graphics are more worthwhile if they are placed on theleft side of the packaging and pictorial elements will be considered worthwhilewhen they are placed on the right side of the packaging. (Pinya, 2004) · This is animportant indication for marketers that graphics can be made more attractivethrough the proper placement of elements which are associated with graphics.Graphics are considered important whether consumer have the brand loyalty ornot.
When consumer are preferring any brand then graphics helps them ineliminating the clutter and when they are not loyal to any of the brand thengraphics act as an important tool which can at least grasp their attention. (Pinya, 2004) as pictorials onpackaging can increases the level of interest and level of curiosity ofcustomers. (Lynsey ; Laura; Armstrong;Heather, 2013) · Material · As othervisual elements, material also communicates, most importantly material affectsthe perceived quality associated with the product that means consumers thinkingregarding material results in change of the perceived quality. Furthermoresometimes marketers use those packaging material which can prevent thefreshness of product under extremely high or extremely low temperature. (Smith and Taylor, 2004) · In anotherstudy conducted in the year 2013 three types of packaging material includingglass, plastic and cardboard were discussed, and finding of research revealeddifferent perception of consumers regarding different types of packagingmaterial, but most of the consumers were found to be in the favor of plasticfor the purpose of packaging, as its not heavy and also can retain freshness ofthe products and chances of leakage are also minimal. (Lynsey; Laura; Armstrong; Heather, 2013) · Design · Researchreveals that consumers feeling regarding the product packaging are actuallytransferred into how they are treating the product, that means innovativepackaging shapes can create an iconic brand image on consumers mind, by cuttingthe clutter at surrounded market place.
(Arun;Ankuri; Hitesh; Udit; Deepali, 2012) Moreover research also concludesthat beautiful and attractive packaging styles influences the purchasedecision, and results in increase purchase of the product. (Golnesa, 2013) Moreover it is abelief of most of the consumers that design of products is directly associatedwith the ease of use, product storage and its carry from one place to another. (Pinya, 2004) · Color: · We areliving in the modem era and consumers now-a-days also possess color vocabularyand therefore they will evaluate the color of the packaging used with its linkwith the product, that means according to the consumers there are some colorswhich can be used for each product category and all the remaining colors aremisfit for that particular product category, that’s why color is also treatedas the useful element of packaging. Moreover color can make brand distinctive as compared to all the other competing brands, if the companybecame able to use color which other competing brands cannot opt easily. (Keller, 2009) · Consumerperception related with color varies, with respect to difference in cultures,but as we knows that this is an era of globalization and mass competitiontherefore because of change in demographics and other trends there is a visiblechange, in the color preferences (Singh,2006) but the element which can help marketers in selecting the colorfor their brands is that there are some certain colors which are treated asbest suited for particular types of products, therefore marketers must usecolor associations while selection the color or color combination for theirband instead of general consumer thinking about the color. (Randi & Joseph, 1999) · Verbal Elements of Packaging: · Informationconveyed by verbal elements is helpful in initiating or boosting of consumersthought process. (Silayoi and Speece,2004) there are several components of verbal elements of packaging andeach of these components have a significant role in influencing consumer buyingbehavior.
(Adam and Ali, 2014) · Product Information: · Increase ofconcerns towards health also increases the importance of labeling and now it isthe duty of manufacturing company and marketers to include product informationin order to ease purchase decision. (Pinya,2004) · It is also indicated by research that if company wants toincrease the credibility of the product they must jot down accurate informationabout the product as it will help consumers in making decision, on the otherhand if the information is confusing or does not seems to be appropriate thenit can create confusion and produces negative impact on the brand. Researchalso revealed that product information has lesser or no importance to thosehaving low involvement in product purchase, and for those having highinvolvement with the product, information related with it having significantimportance, and for making appropriate decision the information related withthe product will also take into the account, as it has the ability to change oralter the attitude of consumers having high involvement with the product. · (Pinya, 2004) Nutritional Information: Dietand Life style of consumers are the potent factors due to which nutritionalinformation is also treated as important part of verbal elements of packaging,study conducted in the year 2009 indicated that nutritional information must beproperly indicated on packaging especially in the category of food relatedproduct as this type of information affect the food choices of the customers. (Josephine, 2009) Research providesthe reference of research conducted Asian Food Centre in the year 2006 atjotted down three very important findings associated with the effect ofnutritional information on packaging on consumer buying behavior · a) Consumer want to have nutritionalinformation on product packaging but the level of knowledge they have about thenutritional information is very low · b) Consumer prefer the nutritionalinformation which can describe the function of nutrition’s on human body · c) The decision which is made by theconsumers related with their diet is only for short term.
· Change or alter the attitude of consumers having highinvolvement with the product. (Pinya,2004) Nutritional Information: Diet and Life style of consumers are thepotent factors due to which nutritional information is also treated asimportant part of verbal elements of packaging, study conducted in the year2009 indicated that nutritional information must be properly indicated onpackaging especially in the category of food related product as this type ofinformation affect the food choices of the customers. (Josephine, 2009) Research provides the reference of researchconducted Asian Food Centre in the year 2006 at jotted down three veryimportant findings associated with the effect of nutritional information on packagingon consumer buying behavior a) Consumerwant to have nutritional information on product packaging but the level ofknowledge they have about the nutritional information is very low b) Consumer prefer the nutritionalinformation which can describe the function of nutrition’s on human body c) The decision which is made by theconsumers related with their diet is only for short term.
· RESEARCH METHODOLOGY · Research isdone by considering variables used by other researchers in their prior researchwork on the topic of packaging and its impact on consumer purchase decision andas we have found sufficient material related with our requirements. That’s whythe research is descriptive in nature and the type of investigation we haveperformed was causal as the research was based upon cause and effectrelationship. · CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION · After detailed statistical testing it has been observed thatthere is a significant impact of living area and level of education on theselection of any particular brand of chocolates, while gender and level ofincome does not have any impact on the section of any particular brand thatmeans people lives in different areas irrespect of their gender and level ofincome have their own preference of chocolate brand. · Similarly level of education is also influencing the purchaseof particular chocolate brand. While it has been identified that thenutritional information which is associated with verbal elements of packagingdoes not have any impact on the selection of chocolate brand, and this has beenfound true for both the brands. Furthermore design of packaging is the onlyelement which does not have impact on consumer buying behaviour associated withthe purchase of chocolates, but this is not found. · REFERENCES Journals: 1 Adam, M Amir & Ali, Kamran, (2014), “Impact of VisualElements of Packaging of Packaged Milk on Consumer Buying Behavior”,Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5(11), 119-160 2 Arun Kumar Agariya; Ankur, Johari; Hitesh, K Sharma; Udit, N SChandraul, Deepali. Singh (2012).
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