The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether efficacy beliefs have an effect on job stress across populations. The study is based on three different empirical papers researching the relationship of efficacy on idiocentric and allocentric individuals. The first study presented focuses on the effect of efficacy, job demands, job control and ill health. The second focuses on the effects of job training on efficacy and performance and finally, the third study focuses on the effect of participative decision making and performance levels. All three studies concluded that efficacy beliefs do affect job stress across cultures and also highlight how the aspect of efficacy differs between idiocentric and allocentric individuals.
In the 21st century, job’s have developed significantly with technological advances, heavier workload, and a straining economy. Jobs therefore come with heavier responsibilities; with workers trying to keep up economically for themselves but also their families. Heavier job responsibilities come with a range of new job demands which can lead to increased stress and subsequent health issues. Increased stress, for individuals and companies, has a heavy cost including reduced work hours and income. Global businesses, therefore, need to reduce this increased stress to keep their business’ stable. The job demands-control model (Karasek, 1979) explains that job demands are positively associated with ill health and increased stress as the individual has little control over demands, however, companies have come to realize that increased employee control can reduce stress. A common factor related to this is efficacy. Efficacy is defined as one’s level of confidence in using his or her energy to chose the appropriate response strategy in a given task situation. Research conducted into efficacy and heavy job demands reveal that a participant with high self-efficacy can effectively use their energy and confidence to appropriately handle the situation and decrease stress and subsequent health problems. Although research has been done on efficacy and job demands, a lack of research has compared this trend in different cultures. Perhaps an Eastern and allocentric individual would rely on collective efficacy (a group’s shared beliefs) or in fact have lower self-efficacy than a Western and idiocentric individual. Perhaps these individuals would therefore have different attitudes to dealing with job demands and oncoming stress. In this research, we question, “Do efficacy beliefs affect job stress across populations?”