Abraham Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs Commerce Essay
This chapter the research worker intends to supply an overview of the impact of information system execution on occupation satisfaction among staff at UiTM Melaka City Campus. This chapter begins with the definition of information system and occupation satisfaction.
Following this subdivision, it covered some importance subjects such as system quality, information quality, and service quality. In add-on, this chapter besides discusses the theoretical model for this survey.
As the get downing point in this chapter, the treatment on the definition of occupation satisfaction will carried out which is appears to change in the apprehension of old research workers.
Some of the most normally cited definitions on occupation satisfaction are analyzed in the text that follows. However, for this survey the definition is adopted from old research in an effort to seek and suit the model of this survey.Job satisfaction can be described the ensuing from the officeholder ‘s comparing of existent results with the needed results as an affectional or emotional reaction to the occupation ( Buitendach & A ; Witte, 2005 ) . Job satisfaction is defined as the employee ‘s occupation appraisal consequence of their positive emotional response every bit good as fulfilling or congruent with the person ‘s values ( Morris & A ; Venkatesh, 2010 ) .
On the other manus, Webster ‘ lexicon ( 1986 ) specify occupation satisfaction as on how good a occupation provides fulfilment of a demand or privation and besides agencies of enjoyment. At the same clip, there is besides need the attitudes about assorted facets of their occupation such as the sort of work they do, their coworkers, and supervisors or subsidiary.Apart from a few definitions mentioned supra, there are many more depicting the construct definition of occupation satisfaction. The definition of occupation satisfaction has visibly evolved through the decennaries, but most versions portion the belief that occupation satisfaction is a work-related positive affectional reaction ( Bernard, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Chen ( 2007 ) , among multiple personality traits, achievement motive is often related to single on the job public presentation and working attitude. Furthermore, harmonizing to Alhawary and Aborumman, they indicate occupation satisfaction is associated with an person ‘s perceptual experiences and rating of the occupation, and this perceptual experience is influence by single fortunes such demands, values and outlooks.
Therefore persons will measure their occupations harmonizing to the factors which they regard as being of import to them ( Sempane, Rieger and Roodt, 2002 ) .
Abraham Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow ‘s “ Hierarchy of Needs ” harmonizing to Saif, Nawaz, Ali Jan & A ; Khan ( 2012 ) , an analysis of the “ commonly-cited ” theoretical theoretical accounts reveals that these are different positions of the same world. Their differences lie in their prioritization of the chief facets of satisfaction. In add-on, most of the arguments about theories of occupation satisfaction start with Maslow ‘s theory of “ Hierarchy of Needs ” ( 1943 ) . Then, harmonizing to Booysen ( 2008 ) argues that the footing of this theoretical account is the persons will happen out satisfy of the innate demands and wants they have.
In add-on, these innate demands and wants have a built in prioritising system which are being referred to the hierarchy of demands.Then, the Abraham Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs are the demands of an single exist in a rational order and the basic lower degree are must be satisfied before those at higher degrees which it is relates with the excess a occupation allows for growing and acquisition of higher degree demands, the more apt the person is to describe satisfaction with his or her occupation ( Worrel, 2004 ) . Therefore, the Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs theorized that satisfaction could be conceptualized as a pyramid with five different horizontal degrees which is have to maintained that the lower demands had to be met before the person could be motivated to accomplish the following degree ( Brown, 2009 ) . Furthermore, Ololube ( 2006 ) , Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs are one time a demand is satisfied it is no longer a demand because it is ceases to actuate employees ‘ behaviour and they are motivated by the demand at the following degree up the hierarchy.Harmonizing to Brown ( 2009 ) the basic demands which are the lowest degree in the pyramid include the physiological necessities.
Then, the following degree consists of physical safety and fiscal security and so the 3rd flat consist of love and credence of peoples. Next, the 4th degree include of acknowledgment by peoples. Last the top degree in the pyramid included of ego realization which is consist ego development and liberty. In add-on, Worrel ( 2004 ) argues that Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs positions of occupation satisfaction were based on the five phase theoretical account of human demands. The lower phase is the basic life prolonging demands and so the following phase included of physical and fiscal security, while the 3rd phase consisted demands of societal credence. Then, the 4th phases are incorporated self realization demands.Maslow % E2 % 80 % 99s-hierarchy-of-needs-for-a-small-scale-business
Maslow ‘s theory of “ Hierarchy of Needs ” ( 1943 )
Self Actualization SatisfactionSelf realization demands that are the top in the degree of Maslow ‘s demand theory consist of recognizing one ‘s full potency or ego development that the pinnacle of one ‘s naming ( Ololube, 2006 ) .
Furthermore, same with the Booysen ( 2008 ) which argue the ego realization is the highest demand which drives employees to look for accomplishment, track a utile life in the organisation and finally in society which is the employee will go on to seek occupations that are disputing and originative in their chase for self realization.Then, harmonizing to Worrel ( 2004 ) that the occupation satisfaction occurs one time one ‘s required for growing and ego realization are met by the person ‘s occupation. In add-on James ( 2011 ) , it is about pursuit for making one ‘s full potency as an person which they believed to hold frequent happenings of extremum experiences that are energized minutes of profound felicity and harmoniousness.
He added which is harmonizing to Maslow, merely a little per centum of the population reaches the degree of self realization. Furthermore, this involves endeavoring for wellness, seeking for individuality and liberty and longing for excellence ( Fernando & A ; Nilakant, 2008 ) .The ego realization construct harmonizing to Maslow refers the person are demands for ego fulfilment, viz. and the inclinations in order to go actualized of what they are potentially ( Cuirrin, 2007 ) . However, harmonizing to Maslow ( 1954 ) , the common characteristic of the demands for ego realization which is their outgrowth normally rests upon some anterior satisfaction of the physiological, safety, love and esteem demands. In add-on, self realization demands are the entails the proviso of chances as it occupies the concluding degree at the top of the trigon that would let employees to make their full calling potency ( James, 2011 ) .Social SatisfactionSocial Needs are persons related to interaction with others which may include friendly relationship, belonging to a group, and giving and having love ( Jamess, 2011 ) . Furthermore, persons motivated at the societal demands degree in the hierarchy have satisfied both their physiological and safety demands ( Cuirrin, 2007 ) .
Furthermore, Social demands are the employees look for to organize societal relationships within and outside of the organisation and this frequently to occupation satisfaction and so the employees frequently value the receiving of coworkers in the organisation that are refers to psychological demands ( Booysen, 2008 ) . Furthermore, Cuirrin ( 2007 ) refer to his consequences that were consistent with Maslow ‘s theory of demand which is argue that who are attempted to verify the association between physiological wellness, engagement in a romantic relationship and the quality of love in a relationship and the quality of love in a relationship.The importance of societal demands should non be underestimated in an organisational scene, peculiarly so for alumnuss whose co-workers and supervisor are a critical beginning of societal support ( Cuirrin, 2007 ) .
Therefore, There is demand to bring forth a feeling of credence, belonging, and community by reenforcing squad kineticss, be aftering team-based undertakings and societal events such as societal activities, friendly relationships, sense of belonging and fondness. That can supply chances for single to socialise as the socialisation are the one factor can do employee work as a squad ( James, 2011 ) .
Job Characteristic ( Hackman and Oldham 1975 )
Job related is properties or factors by occupation features. Job features theoretical account are proposed by Hackman and Oldham ( 1975 ) which the theoretical account chiefly describes the five nucleus occupation dimensions ( skill assortment, undertaking individuality, undertaking significance, liberty and task feedback ) that are presently one of the most normally used tools for depicting occupation that can excite employees to see critical psychological provinces, that affect personal and work results ( Chen, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Hackman & A ; Oldham, 2005, the theory argues core features undertaking which is skill assortment, undertaking individuality, undertaking significance, liberty and undertaking feedback have their strongest effects when employees have high growing need strength which is when they have a high desire for growing and personal development at work. Furthermore, occupation features are aspect of the single employee occupation and undertakings that figure how the employee perceives his or her peculiar function in the organisation. That is exposed of the Hackman and Oldham ‘s ( 1980 ) original preparation of occupation features theory that the result of the occupation redesign were influenced by some moderators which is the difference to which assorted employees desire single or psychological advancement and so the lucidity of undertakings leads to higher occupation satisfaction because greater function lucidity creates such work force, which is more satisfied with, committed to, and involved in work ( Saif, Nawaz, Jan & A ; Khan, 2012 ) .
Harmonizing to Morris & A ; Venkatesh ( 2010 ) , occupation features are drawn from occupation characteristic theoretical account by Hackman & A ; Oldham 1980 and consist of the undermentioned five concepts which is task significance, defined as the extent to which a occupation has impact on the lives of people in an organisation or society in general. Then, the definition of undertaking individuality is the extent to which a occupation involves finishing a whole identifiable result. Next is skill assortment as the extent to which occupation requires the usage of different endowments. Meanwhile, liberty is defined as the extent to which a occupation provides the employee with discretion to make up one’s mind how the work is complete and to put the agenda for finishing the work activities.
Last, the feedback to be defined as the extent to which transporting out the work activities provides the employee with clear information about employee public presentation. Furthermore, Chen ( 2008 ) defined that the five nucleus features which the accomplishment assortment describe as the grade of technique and endowment required by occupations, undertaking individuality describe as the grade of occupation accomplished by an single worker and undertaking significance indicate the grade of occupation consequence effects on the company or others task. Meanwhile, liberty indicates of an person of strategic ego finding when executing the occupation. Last, undertaking feedback describes the grade of the employee can understand either the occupation achieves good or bad consequences. In add-on the Casey & A ; Robbins ( 2009 ) claims that the nucleus occupation dimensions of occupation characteristic theoretical account ( Hackman & A ; Oldham, 1975 ) which are skill assortment defined as the grade of which occupation requires a assortment of different activities to use the usage of different accomplishments and endowments. Next, undertaking individuality means the grade to which a occupation requires accomplishment of the whole and identifiable portion of work which is making occupation from Begin to the stoping with a seeable result.
Then the undertaking significance is the grade to which the occupation has of import impact on the other people work either in the immediate organisation or in the external environment. Meanwhile, liberty is the grade to which the occupation provides important freedom, independency, and discretion to the person in scheduling the work and determines the processs to be used in transporting it out. Last, feedback from the occupation is the grade which is transporting out work activities that required by occupation consequences of the single including direct and clear information about the effectivity of public presentation.The theory is non predictable to work with equal effectivity for all persons. In peculiar, persons with strong value and want single feelings of achievement and growing must respond really positively to a occupation high in actuating possible and so the persons who do non value personal growing and achievement may happen such a occupation anxiousness eliciting and may be uncomfortably stretched by it ( Hackman and Oldham, 1974 ) . Chen ( 2008 ) argued that perceptual experiences of accomplishment assortment, undertaking individuality and undertaking significance enable the worker to understand the significance of the occupation. Furthermore perceptual experiences of liberty can reenforce employee sense of duty sing work outcomes. Finally, perceptual experiences of feedback aid employees to foretell the possible consequences of the occupation.
Skill VarietyUndertaking IdentityUndertaking SignificanceJob Characteristic ModelJoAutonomyTask Feedback
Job Characteristic Model by Hackman and Oldham ( 1975 )
DeLone and McLean Success Model
The DeLone and McLean IS Success Model, though published in 1992, was based on theoretical and empirical Information System ( IS ) research conducted by a figure of research workers in the 1970s and 1980s ( Petter, 2008 ) . DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems ( IS ) is one of the most cited and normally used theoretical accounts in the Information System literature. By and large, the theoretical account has been used chiefly to explicate Information System success at the single degree of analysis ( Wang & A ; Liao, 2008 ) .Based on old research worker ( Ephraim, 2009 ) there are six variables or constituents of information system ( IS ) such system quality, information quality, usage, user satisfaction, single impact, and organisational impact.
Although this variables will attempted to clear up the relationships between the IS success and their impact of newer information engineerings. Harmonizing to Wang & A ; Liao ( 2007 ) was makes two of import parts to the apprehension of information system which it provide a strategy for categorising the battalion of information system success steps which have been used in the research literature. Second by proposing a theoretical account of temporal and causal mutualities between the classs.Harmonizing to Wang ( 2007 ) , DeLone and McLean theoretical account in the academic literature, it seemed appropriate to form the surveies of information system success that were found utilizing its taxonomy. The findings from empirical surveies on information system success are organized by success concept or dimensions. Therefore, by organized this surveies in this mode can assist to analyze for each of the proposed relationship within the D & A ; M theoretical account.Job SatisfactionSystemQualityInformationQualityFigure 2.
1: DeLone and McLean ( 1992 ) ModelDeLone and McLean proposed the theoretical account of Information System success shown in Figure 1. The theoretical account makes of import parts to the apprehension of Information System success. First, it provides a strategy for categorising the battalion of IS success steps that have been used in the literature.
Second, it suggest a theoretical account of temporal and causal mutualities between the classs ( Petter, 2008 )SystemQualityInformationQualityJob SatisfactionServiceQualityFigure 2.2: DeLone and McLean ( 2003 ) Model of IS SuccessBased on the old research, the updated Information System ( IS ) theoretical account wants to acknowledging these proposed alterations to their theoretical account, reviewed empirical surveies that had been performed during the old ages since 1992 and revised the original theoretical account. The updated theoretical account is shown in Figure 2 ( Delone, 2003 ) .This updated IS success theoretical account accepted the Hastie et Al. ( 2003 ) recommendation to include service quality as a concept. Another update to the theoretical account addressed the unfavorable judgment that an information system can impact degrees other than single and organisational degrees.
Other than that, IS success was affects workgroups, industries, societies, DeLone and McLean replaced the variables, single impact and organisational impact, with net benefits, thereby accounting for benefits at multiple degrees of analysis. This alteration allowed the theoretical account to be applied to whatever degree of analysis the research worker considers most relevant ( Halone et al. 2009 ) . In 1959, Herzberg et Al. conducted a survey whichIn 2008, Petter conducted a survey which the D & A ; M theoretical account has besides been found to be a utile model for forming IS success measurings. The theoretical account has been widely used by IS research workers for understanding and mensurating the dimensions of IS success.
Furthermore, each of the variables depicting success of an information system was consistent with one or more of the six major success dimensions of the updated theoretical account. The dimensions of success was include such system quality, information quality, service quality, system usage, user satisfaction and net benefits ( Delone, 2003 ) .However, DeLone and McLean ( 2004 ) applied their success theoretical account to measure the success of e-commerce systems. From an e-commerce position, the key users are clients and supplier.
Based on Buitendach & A ; White ( 2005 ) besides adapted the theoretical account for usage in measuring e-learning class. Further, Hastie ( 2006 ) used the theoretical account when they assessed the efficiency and success of e-learning information system from the point of view of organisations and their employees.
The significance of information systems has been turning in diverseness and complexness ( Nagib & A ; Belkis, 2002 ) . Based on Cohen ( 1997, 1999, 2000 ) , for illustration, after depicting the onslaughts on the Information Systems ( IS ) field, for “ its deficiency of tradition and focal point ” and the “ misinterpretation of the nature of Information Systems ” , examines “ the restrictions of bing models for specifying Information Systems ” and reconceptualis Information Systems and tries to “ show that it has evolved to be portion on an emerging subject of Fieldss, Informing Science ” ( Cohen, 20 ) .From the past research worker, ( Wong & A ; Arjpru, 2007 ) notes that Information System execution can genuinely be considered as a “ success ” when a important figure of users have used the Information Systems ( IS ) on a continued footing. Harmonizing to the literature, Information System Implementation can genuinely be considered as a “ success ” when a important figure of users have moved from an initial acceptance to utilizing the Information System on a continued footing ( Bhattacherjee 2001, Cheung & A ; Limayem 2005, Davis & A ; Venkatesh 2004 ) .In the other manus, Wang & A ; Liao ( 2008 ) besides indicates that the measuring of information systems success or effectivity has been widely investigated throughout the information system research community.
Furthermore, DeLone and McLean ( 1992 ) comprehensively reviewed the different information system success steps and proposed a six-factor information system success theoretical account as a taxonomy and model for mensurating the complex-dependent variables in information system research.The past surveies of information system have chiefly focused on the factors that influence users to get down to utilize the system. Harmonizing to Wong & A ; Arjpru ( 2007 ) , presently there are no information system surveies that investigated both the factors that influence user satisfaction and the factors that influence user dissatisfaction and there might be a possibility that employees will go on or stop or increase or diminish the usage of system depending upon whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied with the system.
From Chen et Al. 2004 ; Chiasson & A ; Lovato 2001 ; Jones et Al. 2002 ; Venkatesh et Al.
2003 ; Wixom & A ; Todd 2005 have shown in drawn-out surveies of engineering acceptance and engineering credence. From the research workers Wong & A ; Arjpru ( 2007 ) , indicates from Bhattacherjee ( 2001 ) was the first research workers to suggest a Post-Acceptance Model for Information System Continuance. His theoretical account seeks to explicate users ‘ purpose to go on utilizing the system. Although his theoretical account is considered to be the most widely cited and influential theoretical account in explicating an information system continuation purpose ( Centefelli & A ; Benbasat 2003 ; Cheung & A ; Limayem 2005 ; Koppious et Al. 2005 ) , it is uncomplete in explicating the usage of the system for a peculiar group of users, most peculiarly, users who are employees in organisation, utilizing the system to execute their occupations. This is because his theoretical account emphasizes satisfaction as the chief ground doing the users ‘ purpose to go on utilizing the system.Definition of QualityReeves and Bednar ( 1994 ) has define the footings of quality in organisation of quality as excellence, quality as value, quality as conformance to specifications and quality as meeting client outlooks.
This statement can be supported based on Swanson ( 1997 ) indicates that the information systems quality can be understood utilizing Reeves and Bednar ‘s model of quality. Excellence in Information System quality involves utilizing state-of-the art- engineering, following industry “ best pattern ” package criterions and presenting “ error-free ” public presentation. Besides that, the value of Information System can be realized by bettering net income borders for the house, supplying easy-to-use and utile applications and planing easy maintainable package.System QualityHarmonizing to Gorla & A ; et.al ( 2010 ) , system quality represents the quality of the information system treating itself, which includes package and information constituents, and it is a step of the extent to which the system is technically sound. It is besides characterized by employment of state-of-the-art engineering, a system offering cardinal maps and characteristics which denoted as Information System excellence and package that is user friendly, easy to larn and easy maintainable which denoted as Information System value.
Seddon ( 1997 ) indicates that system quality is concerned with whether there are bugs in the system, the consistence of user interface, easiness of usage, quality of certification, and sometimes, quality and maintainability of plan codification. This statement can be proved consequently to DeLone and McLean ( 2003 ) , each of the variables depicting success of an information system was consistent with one or more of the six major success dimensions of the updated theoretical account. One of the dimensions of success include of system quality which is define as the desirable features of information systems. For illustration, easiness of usage, system flexibleness, system dependability and easiness of acquisition, every bit good as characteristics of intuitiveness, edification, flexibleness and response times.Other than that, DeLone and McLean ( 2003 ) besides stated that system quality is measured by properties such as easiness of usage, functionality, informations quality, flexibleness and integrating.
While Sedera and Gable ( 2004 ) develops and validates an comprehensive instrument for system quality which resulted in nine properties which are easiness of usage, easiness of acquisition, user demands, system characteristics, system truth, flexibleness edification, integrating and customization.Information QualityThe ISO 9000:2000 criterion defines quality as the “ grade to which a set of built-in separating characteristics fulfils demands or outlooks that are stated, by and large implied or obligatory ” ( International Organization of Standardization, 2000 ) . This statement can be supported by Schee & A ; Trumpold, 1996 stated that in conformity with this definition quality information comes from the comparing of the existent and the nominal status of a quality standard. Then a quality information system evidently is an instrument for managing such quality information. In many instances choice information is non available straight, but it has to be derived from other natural informations.
Therefore in the undermentioned information is regarded as quality-relevant, if it can be used to obtain choice information ( Sommer, 2002 ) .Based on Forza ( 1995 ) , the dimension “ choice information systems ” considers information flows and information engineerings which support directors and workers in their activities in order to better quality public presentation. Information engineerings are separated from information flows, since information flows can take topographic point even without information engineerings and the presence of information engineerings does non needfully vouch the accomplishment of information flows.Service QualityHarmonizing to Gorla & A ; et Al. ( 2010 ) indicated that service quality can be defined as the grade of disagreement between clients ‘ normative outlooks for service and their perceptual experiences of service public presentation.
This can be proved by Levesque and McDougall ( 1996 ) notes that the involvement is mostly driven by the realisation that high service quality consequences in client satisfaction and trueness, greater willingness to urge to person else, decrease in ailments and improved client keeping rates.In contrast, service quality is a major influence on a client satisfaction as clients buy merchandises or services and on whether they continue to make so. As a consequence, accurate and dependable instruments that assess service quality are of involvement to companies whose grosss come in whole or portion from service bringing. Presently the most popular and omnipresent service quality instrument is SERVQUAL ( Landrum et al. 2009 ) . This statement can be proved by the seminal work on service quality is that of Parasuramaner Al. ( 1988 ) , which culminated in the development of the SERVQUAL instrument ( Gorla et al.
, 2010 ) .Harmonizing to Landrum et Al. ( 2009 ) , SERVQUAL is based on the proposition that service quality can be measured as the spread between the service that clients expect and the public presentation they perceive to hold received. Service quality is calculated as the difference in two tonss where better service quality consequences in a smaller spread ( Landrum, Prybutok, Kappelman & A ; Zhang, 2008 ) . From the past research worker ( Buttle, 1996 ) , SERVQUAL is founded on the position that the client ‘s appraisal of Service quality is paramount which is service quality is presented as a multidimensional concept. In their original preparation Parasuraman et Al.
( 1985 ) identified 10 constituents of service quality which are dependability, reactivity, competency, entree, courtesy, communicating, credibleness, security, understanding or cognizing the client and tangibles.Although SERVQUAL was developed within the selling sector, it besides is used in a assortment of organisational scenes, including libraries and information centre ‘s ( Kettinger & A ; Lee, 1994 ; Nitecki, 1996 ) . Furthermore, Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry ( 1988 ) stated that since service quality depends on the relationship of client outlooks with client perceptual experiences, it is appropriate to cipher service quality by deducting expected from sensed service. One so achieves an overall step of service quality by averaging the tonss of all points ( Brown, Churchill & A ; Peter, 1992 ) .In the present, Gorla & A ; et Al.
( 2010 ) the service quality concept was measured by four indexs which are dependability, reactivity, confidence, and empathy. Scale points were adopted from Pitt et Al. They used four concepts for service quality as opposed to the five concepts used by Pitt et Al. which are dropped the ‘tangibles ‘ concept. The principle for this attack is that the step for the ‘tangible ‘ dimension had low dependability in the survey of Pitt et Al. ( 1995 ) , and their pick is consistent with the picks of old research workers ( Kettinger and Lee, 1997 ; Carr, 2002 ) who excluded tangibles dimension in IS-adapted service quality measuring.
It can be supported by Landrum ( 2009 ) , which states as the importance and size of the service sector of the planetary economic system grows, the survey of services and invention are going progressively of import. Servicess are distributed regionally, nationally and globally and are progressively going a larger part of many organisations ‘ gross concern services aimed at heightening public presentation require dependable methods of measuring, appraisal and betterment ( Spohrer & A ; Maglio, 2008 ) .
Information System ( IS )
( DeLone and McLean )
( Ling-Hsiu Chen, 2007 )*Self-Actualization Satisfaction*Social Satisfaction*Job-Related SatisfactionFigure 2.3 Represent the Theoretical Framework for the Impact of Information System execution on occupation satisfaction among staff at UiTM Melaka Campus City.
In carry oning this survey, several hypotheses were formulated from research inquiries.
It is as follow:H1 Higher system quality has a relationship with higher occupation satisfaction among staff at UiTM Melaka City Campus.H2: Higher information quality has a relationship with higher occupation satisfaction among staff at UiTM Melaka City Campus.H3: Higher service quality has a relationship with higher occupation satisfaction among staff at UiTM Melaka City Campus.
This chapter reviews the literature of employee occupation satisfaction and the impact of information system. The theoretical models were shows the relationship of occupation satisfaction and information system. There were shows relationship between two variables for the survey.