Abo Blood Groups Relationship With Australian Antigen Biology Essay
ABO blood groups and their relationship with Australia antigen ( HBsAg ) and anti-HCV antibody
To happen out the relationship of Australia antigen ( HBsAg ) and anti Hepatitis C antibody ( anti-HCV ) with ABO blood groups
A prospective observational survey
There were a sum of 4,026 patients. The prevalence of HBsAg was found to be 2.68 % while the prevalence of anti-HCV was found to be 5.61 % . Most of the patients belonged to group ‘O +ve ‘ while the Australia antigen ( HBsAg ) was besides more prevailing in the blood group ‘O +ve ‘ ( 43.50 % ) . The presence of anti-HCV in the sera was besides more prevailing in blood group ‘O +ve ‘ ( 37.60 % ) .
The prevalence of Hepatitis B and C is non uncommon in the patients at Nishtar Hospital
The possible association of blood group antigens with HBV and HCV infection can non be ruled out.
Knowledge of blood group of patients and their HBsAg and anti-HCV position can minimise the opportunities of spread of these conditions
The ABO blood group system is the most of import blood type system ( or blood group system ) in human blood transfusion. The ABO blood group system is widely credited to hold been discovered by the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner, who found three different blood types in 1900 ; he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930 for his work. Landsteiner described A, B, and O ; Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli discovered the 4th type, AB, in 1902.
The Rh blood group system is one of the presently 30 human blood group systems. It is the clinically most of import blood group system besides ABO. Persons either have, or do non hold, the “ Rh factor ” on the surface of their ruddy blood cells. This term purely refers merely to the most immunogenic D antigen of the Rh blood group system. This is normally indicated by Rh positive ( does hold the D antigen ) or Rh negative ( does non hold the D antigen ) postfix to the ABO blood type. However, other antigens of this blood group system are besides clinically relevant. These antigens are listed individually ( see nomenclature below ) . In contrast to ABO, immunisation against Rh can by and large merely occur through blood transfusion or placental exposure during gestation.
Hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) and hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) are of great concern because of their drawn-out viremia and bearer or latent province. They besides cause fatal, chronic and dangerous upsets. HBV and HCV are extremely contagious and comparatively easy to be transmitted from one infected person to another by blood transfusion, during birth, by unprotected sex, and by sharing acerate leafs.
With the find of blood groups by Landsteiner and subsequent great promotion in its survey, many workers have tried to happen out a possible relationship between the incidence of these blood groups and the incidence of assorted diseases. Strong association have been described between peptic ulcer and blood group O, stomachic carcinoma and blood group A, toxemia of pregnancy of gestation and blood group O, carcinoma neck and blood group AB, and similar other associations.
In the field of Dermatology and Venereology possible association has besides been sought. These include lichen planus and blood group A, pemphigus and seborrhoeic dermatitis and blood group B, vitiligo and blood group AB.
There is no survey of blood groups in HBV and HCV infection instances to the best of our cognition. In this survey, we made an effort to find any association between blood groups and HBV and HCV infectionS.
This prospective observational survey was carried out in Nishtar Hospital, Multan from May 2009 to August 2009. Nishtar Hospital, Multan is a third attention infirmary with strength of – beds in wards and – beds in the exigency.
All the patients admitted in the medical wards were included in the survey.
ABO blood grouping and Rhesus ( RH ) typewriting:
ABO and Rh blood groups findings were carried out on a slide utilizing monoclonal blood grouping antisera ; anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB, and anti-D ( BIOTEC Laboratories Ltd, Great Britain ) .
Lab trials for HBsAg and HCV antibodies:
Serum were checked for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ) utilizing ELISA, Hepanostika HBsAg ( Murex Biotech Ltd, Dartford, UK ) . Similarly, IgG antibodies
to HCV were detected utilizing an ELISA technique ( Murex anti-HCV version 4.0 ) harmonizing to the maker ‘s
The processs followed were in conformity with the ethical criterions of the responsible commission on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983
The names of patients, their initials or their hospital enrollment Numberss have non been used
Datas were entered, cleaned and analyzed utilizing SPSS version 16 statistical bundle.
Differences in prevalence of HBV, HCV for ABO and Rhesus blood group variables were tested for significance utilizing logistic arrested development.
P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically important.
Table 1 Distribution of HBV and HCV harmonizing to ABO and Rhesus blood groups:
Hepatitis B positive
Hepatitis C positive
Both hepatitis B, C positive
As shown in Table 1, a sum of 4,026 patients were screened at Nishtar Hospital, Multan during the survey period. Of these, 3,681 ( 91.43 % ) were found to be neither HBV positive nor HCV positive. The highest figure of topics belonged to blood group O, 1507 ( 37.43 % ) and while an overpowering 3,472 were found to be Rhesus positive ( 86.3 % ) . The lowest figure of topics, 173, fell in the AB class.
Table 2 Percentage of Hepatitis B, C harmonizing to ABO and Rh blood grouping
Percentage of Hepatitis B positive
Percentage of Hepatitis C positive
Percentage of both Hepatitis B and C positive
It can be seen from Table 2 that of the entire Hepatitis B positive topics, 43.50 % belonged to blood group O+ve. Similarly, the highest per centum of HCV positive topics to had their blood group O+ve. Blood groups A- , AB- and O- had comprised merely 0.93 % of the entire HBV positive topics each while AB and O- blood groups did non hold any topics who were anti-HCV positive. Both the consequences were found/were non found to be statistically important ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) .
The consequences obtained through this survey show that subjects with blood group O are more susceptible to HBV and HCV infections as compared to those with other groups. On the other manus, topics with blood group AB and besides those who are Rh negative show decreased susceptibleness to HBV and HCV infections.
These consequences point to a possible familial nexus between heritage of blood groups and natural defence mechanism against infection. Clark had suggested that the degree of natural antibodies in adult male might be different in assorted A B O types. It may be assumed that AB genotyped individuals have highest grade of natural opposition against HBV and HCV infections whereas O genotyped individuals have lesser grade of such natural opposition. Similarly there was significantly lower incidence of HBV and HCV infections in Rh negative persons. These observations might intend that Rh negative topics are more immune to certain pathological conditions despite that jeopardies encountered in babyhood.
From this survey it is concluded that heritage of blood groups and attendant heritage of certain immunological characteristics may act upon the development of HBV and HCV infections. However, larger survey affecting more figure of patients are required to get at more definite decision.