A Pioneering Push Diversity Of Brinjal In India Biology Essay
Brinjal ( Solanum melongena L. ) ( 2n=24 ) , normally known as aubergine, eggplant or guinea squash, is an of import vegetable harvest of tropical and temperate parts of the universe. It is a good beginning of vitamins and minerals, particularly Fe. Besides being used as an of import veggie, aubergine has been exploited extensively in traditional medical specialty.
Genus Solanum, to which brinjal belongs is preponderantly of Central and South American beginning. The inquiry of centre of beginning of eggplant has been debated but is by and large believed to hold originated in India. Germplasm resources and aggregations have been good documented, evaluated and conserved throughout the universe ( see image on pg.109 ) . Based on fruit form eggplant has been divided into three chief types viz. , elliptic ( S. melongena volt-ampere. esculentum ) ; long slender shaped ( S. melongena volt-ampere. serpentium ) and midget
type ( S. melongena volt-ampere. depressum ) .
Brinjal has been cultivated for the last 4,000 old ages in India. Among the Solanaceous veggies, eggplant is the most common vegetable harvest grown in many geographical parts in India. Brinjal has become an intrinsic portion of Indian folklore and tradition. The country under eggplant cultivation is estimated at
0.55 million hectares with a entire production of 8.2 million dozenss ( www.faostat.fao.org ) . About 1.4 million little, fringy and resource-poor husbandmans grow eggplant. It is an of import hard currency harvest for hapless husbandmans, produc ing two or three harvests, each of 150 to 180 yearss continuance.
Brinjal cultivars are susceptible to a assortment of emphasis conditions which limit harvest productiveness significantly. The most of import biotic emphasis factor that affects eggplant is an insect plague known as Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer ( BSFB ) . Resistance to BSFB in eggplant germplasm is non available. Attempts to leave pest opposition to the cultivated assortments have achieved merely limited success due to sexual mutual exclusivenesss with the beginning species or wild relations. BSFB causes important losingss of up to 60 to 70 % in commercial plantings. Damage starts in the baby’s room prior to transfering, continues upto crop and is so carried-over to the following harvest. BSFB amendss brinjal in two ways. First, it infests immature shoots during vegetive stage which limits the ability of workss to bring forth healthy fruit bearing shoots, thereby cut downing possible output. Second, it bores into fruits during generative stage doing them unmerchantable ( see image on pg.109 ) . Because of the deep nature of the pest the larvae remains concealed within the shoots and fruits rendering insect powder applications uneffective. Farmers normally spray insecticide twice a hebdomad, using 15-40 sprays, or more, in one season depending on the degrees of infestation. As a consequence, pesticides degree are high in the fruits, which is a affair of serious concern from a wellness position. On an norm, 4.6 kilogram of active ingredient of insecticide per hectare per season is applied on eggplant at a cost of Rs. 12,000 per hectare.
There is an pressing demand to cut down the dependance on pesticides by utilizing safer options to pull off insect plagues. Many insecticidal proteins and molecules are available in nature, which are effectual against agriculturally of import plagues but innocuous to mammals, good insects and other beings. Insecticidal proteins present in the dirt borne bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) , which has demonstrated its efficaciousness as a spray preparation in agribusiness over the past six decennaries, have been expressed in many harvest species with positive consequences. The Bt proteins are packed in the signifier of crystals and when ingested by the insect larvae are processed to an active signifier in the extremely alkalic larval intestine. The active protein binds to a compatible receptor protein nowadays in the intestine cell membranes ensuing in perforations of the membrane and cell lysis taking to the decease of the larvae. Human existences, other mammals and non-target beings including good insects do non incorporate receptors to Bt proteins and hence are non susceptible to Bt action
Three Bt transgenic harvest species ( cotton, maize and murphy ) have already been commercialized with significant benefits to husbandmans. So much so that in 2008 Bt harvests occupied an country of 43 million hectares out of the planetary transgenic country of 125 million hectares. Bt cotton was commercialized in India in twelvemonth 2002 and has been a dramatic success narrative. In a short span of six old ages the country under Bt cotton cultivation has increased from 0.02 million hectares to 8.0 million hectares. In 2008, India occupied the 2nd place in footings of planetary cotton production by turning out 32 million bales of cotton. The benefits of Bt cotton include addition in outputs, decrease in cost of production ( including a decrease of at least 50 % in insecticide applications ) and significant environmental and wellness benefits to little manufacturers. Decrease in the usage of pesticides leads to lesser degrees of insecticide taint in aquifers, reduced husbandman exposure to insect powders and betterment of human wellness, increased populations of good insects, reduced hazard for wildlife, reduced fuel and natural stuff ingestion and decreased pollution. A similar attempt is needed to retroflex the success of Bt cotton in nutrient harvests to run into the challenges of nutrient and nutritionary security in the coming decennaries.
Equally early as 1995, attempts were made by the writer to develop transgenic eggplant showing insecticidal protein ( Cry1Ab ) of Bt. The transgenic lines were field tested on IARI farm which demonstrated limited protection against BSFB. Subsequently, an Indian seed company Mahyco developed transgenic eggplant showing Cry1Ac protein of Bt. The best transgenic event ‘EE-1 ‘ chosen out of several events showed a significantly lower figure of
ORGANISATION ( S )
Mahyco, Mumbai ( Recommended for commercialisation by GEAC in Oct 2009 meeting ) TNAU Coimbatore, IVRI Varanasi, UAS, Darwad, IARI, New Delhi, Sungro Seeds Ltd. , New Delhi
Insect resistance/ cry1Aa and cry1Aabc cry1Ac cry1Ac
Nunhems India Pvt. Ltd.
Insect resistance/ call 1Ba and cry1CA
Sungro Seeds Ltd. , New Delhi Nunhems India Pvt. Ltd.
Insect resistance/ cry1Ac, cry1Ba and cry1Ca
Mahyco, Monsanto, Rasi, Nuziveedu, Anku R, JK Seed, CICR, UAS-D
Insect Resistance, weedkiller tolerance call 1Ac cistron
Virus resistance/ Chitinase cistron
Shoot bore bit / cry1Ab cistron
Insect Resistance/ Pod bore bit, Cry 1Ac
UDSC, New Delhi
Hybrid seed, barnase/ barstar cistron
MAHYCO, Mumbai, Beejo Sheetal, Jalna
Borer call 1Ac, cry2Ab
Pod bore bit and Fungal pathogene, Cry 1Ac and chitinase
CPRI, Shimla, NIPGR, New Delhi
Ama1 and Rb cistron derived from Solanum bulbocastanum
MAHYCO, Mumbai TNAU, Coimbatore
cry1B-cry1Aa merger cistron cry1Ac, cry2Ab Rice chitinase ( chi11 ) or tabacco osmotin cistron
Insect Resistance, Shoot bore bit
IARI, New Delhi MAHYCO, Mumbai NIPGR, New Delhi
Antisense replicase cistron of tomato foliage coil virus cry1Ac
BSFB larvae ( 0-20 ) on Bt eggplant, as compared to 3.5-80 larvae on the non-Bt opposite number. Multi-location and big graduated table tests ( 2004-2008 ) conducted by Mahyco, and independently by the Indian Council for Agricultural Research under the All-India Coordinated Research Program for Vegetable Crops confirmed that insecticide demand for Bt eggplant loanblends was, on an norm, 80 % less than the same for the non-Bt opposite number. This non merely translated into a 42 % decrease in entire insecticides use, but besides an addition of 100 % in the norm marketable output of Bt eggplant compared to its non-Bt opposite number loanblends. It has been estimated that Bt eggplant husbandmans would bask a net addition of Rs. 50,000-60,000
per hectare compared to those cultivating conventional assortments.
Bt brinjal ‘Event EE-1’has been subjected to a strict biosafety regulative procedure embracing all facets of toxicity, allergenicity, environmental safety, socio-economic appraisal etc. Surveies on nutrient and provender safety conducted on rats, coneies, fish, poulet, caprine animals and cattles have.
The ‘Event EE-1 ‘ has been transferred to brinjal assortments that are popular in the provinces of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, by the scientists of the Agricultural Universities at Dharwad and Coimbatore, severally. Indian Institute of Vegetable Research at Varanasi has besides introgressed the event into its assortments. Mahyco has donated Bt eggplant engineering to public sector establishments such as the Institute of Plant Breeding of the University of Philippines and Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute in Bangladesh, an attempt facilitated by the Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project ( ABSP II ) of the Cornell University, USA.
National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology at New Delhi has developed a really effectual event ( Event 142 ) in eggplant curriculum vitae. Pusa Purple Long and licensed it to private seed companies viz. , Bejo Sheetal, Krishidhan, Nath Biogene and Vibha Seeds under Public Private Partnership. Hybrids incorporating Event 142 are presently undergoing biosafety trials and field tests.
In decision, cultivation of Bt eggplant will be a great blessing to the resource hapless vegetable husbandmans of India. This will travel a long manner in cut downing pesticide use in agribusiness therefore protecting human wellness, biodiversity and environment.