The chief aim of this lab is to detect the nature of a free air jet and the dealingss among the variables refering to it. Free air jets are normally found in merchandises such as tight air bottles used for cleansing keyboards or foliage blowers used for cleaning the pace. Examples of other types of free jets can be found in industry with elephantine fume tonss and in nature with geysers. To carry through the chief aim, mensurate the nucleus flow and the nucleus length in the axial way, calculate the speed utilizing the force per unit area difference, find the mass flow rate and impulse flow rate, and cipher the Mach figure. The chief premise is that the air used in the jet is incompressible, and this is subsequently proven by ciphering the Mach figure. Two other of import premises include that radial flow is changeless and the room are is quiescent. After geting the needed values, compare the speed to the axial tubing distance and detect how the nucleus part and the entrainment part contribute to the mass flow rate ; Figure ( 1 ) shows a rough image of these parts.

To happen the alteration in force per unit area ( the alteration between the stagnancy and the inactive force per unit area ) , use the undermentioned equation:

where is the mensural H2O column tallness, is the alteration in force per unit area, is the denseness of H2O at 998 kg/m3, and is the gravitative acceleration. To happen the fluid speed, use the undermentioned equation:

( 2 )

where is the unstable speed and is denseness of air at 1.2 kg/m3. The speed is merely in the axial way that remains the same throughout the lab. It can be observed that the speed of the fluid decreases as the axial distance additions due to the increased sum of shear from the room air which converts kinetic energy into debauched heat ; therefore preservation of energy is assumed. The mass flow rate and the impulse flow rate are determined utilizing the trapezoid regulation in combination with the definitions of each variable due to multiple informations points.

( 3 )

( 4 )

In these equations, is aggregate flow rate, is momentum flow rate, is the incremental radial distance, N is the figure of tests and is the radial distance to the tubing center line. The subscripts ‘o ‘ , ‘t ‘ , ‘f ‘ base for initial, test figure, and concluding severally.

To cipher the Mach figure the undermentioned equation should be used:

( 5 )

( 6 )

where Ma is the Mach figure, is 1.4, R is 287 J/ ( kg*K ) , d is 7.8 millimeter, Vx is the axial speed, Q is the air flow rate and T is 298 K ; if Ma & lt ; .3, so the fluid is considered incompressible.

## Methods

The given setup includes a 7.8 millimeter diameter Cu tubing that supplies air, a rotameter that measures the air flow rate, a valve that controls the air flow, a Pitot investigation that distinguishes between stagnancy and inactive force per unit areas, and H2O based U-Tube manometer used to mensurate air force per unit area. The other mensurating tool that is needed is a little swayer.

For the first portion of the experiment, use the skidder to set the axial distance from the tubing issue to the Pitot investigation so that it is 1 centimeter and the radial distance from the center line is 0 inches. Adjust the valve so that the air flow rate is 50 L/min. Use the rotameter by steering the centre of the “ bead ” to the 50 marker. One individual makes certain that the bead is on the 50 marker ; if the bead moves, that individual demands to counterbalance by seting the valve. Another individual needs to look at the manometer and be able to cognize when the H2O columns about cease traveling. At this point, the difference in perpendicular distance of the H2O column should be measured in inches. Repeat this measure for nine other distances from the tubing issue of 1 centimeter increases. Turn off the air flow, set the skidder back to 1 centimeter from the tubing issue, and reiterate the old procedure for a flow rate of 70 L/min. Convert all H2O column measurings from inches to metres by multiplying by 0.0254 and calculateusing Equation ( 1 ) . Use Equation ( 2 ) to cipher the speeds in m/s.

For the 2nd portion, adjust the skidder so that the investigation is 2 centimeter from the tubing issue. One individual needs to turn on the air flow and put it to 70 L/min. Another individual needs to put the radial distance from the center line to 0 inches. Once the manometer and the rotameter are stable, mensurate the H2O column as done in the old portion of the lab. Increase the radial distance from the center line by 0.05 inches, but maintain the distance from the tubing at 2 centimeter. To make this, turn the caliper-like spindle two full revolutions. Repeat this procedure with 0.05 inch increases until it is.45 inches off from the center line. Turn off the air flow and repetition this procedure for 4, 6, and 8 centimeter distances off from the tubing issue. Convert all the measured values to metres and utilize Equation ( 3 ) and Equation ( 4 ) to find the mass flow rate and the impulse flow rate. Afterwards, usage Equation ( 5 ) and Equation ( 6 ) to cipher the Mach figure for 50 L/min and 70 L/min air flow.

## Consequences and Discussion:

This lab contained a nice degree of uncertainness supplying overall good consequences. The three instruments that provided a good grade of preciseness were the swayer used to mensurate the axial distance from the tubing issue, the manometer used to mensurate to H2O tallness, and the calliper spindle used to mensurate radial distance from the center line. The lone instrument that had a hapless grade of preciseness was the rotameter because its markers were of 5 L/min intervals and the bead was comparatively big. The rotameter was non merely had inaccurate measurings, but seemed to hold problem reacting to mild alterations in air flow. The rotameter is the beginning of the greatest degree of uncertainness in this lab, therefore doing it to be the greatest beginning where mistakes may happen. A difference in 5 L/min at 50 L/min can do the mistake to be 10 % .

The relation between the distance from the tubing issue and fluid speed was as expected. Figure ( 2 ) shows a somewhat negative incline turn into a moderate negative incline because as the distance from the tubing additions, more kinetic energy is dissipated as heat ; therefore a diminution in speed. The dip in the incline indicates a important growing in the entrainment part at about 3 centimeters off from the tubing issue. The entrainment part becomes more dominating because it is larger further off from the tubing issue. It ‘s non a surprise that the speeds of the 70 L/min are greater than the speeds of the 50 L/min because speed is straight relative to volume flow.

The relation between radial distance and the speeds ratio was as expected. The center line, where the radial distance is zero, contains the maximal speed. However, the speed ratio diminishes faster at a smaller distance off from the tubing than at a larger distance even though the maximal speed at the smaller distance is greater than the maximal speed at a larger distance. This is obvious in Figure ( 3 ) because at x = 2 centimeter, the secret plan hits the x-axis at 0.300 inches while ten = 8 centimeter has non hit the x-axis anywhere in the secret plan. This makes sense because as the far axial distance can counterbalance for a big radial distance so that the nucleus part does non lose Pitot investigation wholly. The secret plan besides shows a clear agreement of the order of the speed ratios at R = 0.300 inches.

The ratio of the entire mass flow rate to the tubing mass flow rate is at first surprising that it is greater than 1 and additions as the distance from the tubing increases as Figure ( 4 ) shows. However, after some farther idea, the entire mass flow rate is the amount of the single mass flow rates at different axial places. Since the trapezoid regulation uses ten values, of which the first 1 is ever zero, these combined values will make a greater value than the deliberate tubing mass flow rate, which is theoretically the changeless radial mass flow rate out of the 7.8 millimeter tubing. The tendency that the ratio increases as the distance from the tubing increases is apprehensible since there is a greater sum of air fluxing in a larger scope of the nucleus part ; nevertheless, the incline appears to be diminishing and will finally make nothing because the nucleus part is finite.

The relation between the entire impulse rate and the distance from the tubing issue appears to be a quadratic with a upper limit at where the combination of the merchandise of the air mass flow and speed is the greatest. This relation is shown in Figure ( 5 ) , but because there are merely 4 informations points, it is non clear whether or non this outlook is true. Farther off from the tubing issue indicates a big entire mass flow rate with a little speed while closer toward the tubing issue indicates a little entire mass flow rate with a big speed. Therefore, someplace around x = 6 centimeter lies the upper limit for entire impulse flow rate.

Using Equation ( 5 ) and Equation ( 6 ) , the deliberate Mach figure for 50 L/min is about.05 and the Mach figure for 70 L/min is about.07. Both of these values are good below 0.3 and therefore corroborate the premise that the air used is incompressible. Some beginnings of mistake include general fluctuations in air flow through the pipe and any air blowing in the room. Fluctuations of air flow in the pipe cause the speed of the fluid to alter and switch the H2O degrees inside the manometer. Any air blowing in the room will consequence what the Pitot receives as non-static force per unit area, therefore adding it force per unit area exerted by the fluid. Some human mistakes include misjudgment of when the manometer stops altering, inattentiveness toward the rotameter, and inaccurate accommodations of the air flow. These lead to low to moderate mistakes and are normally compensated with better informations that came before and after these mistakes were made.

## Decisions and Recommendations

The free air jet flow was observed, and its variables were determined and related to each other. There were about no surprises in the figures or informations, and the consequences were good. One of the chief tendencies was that the fluid speed is greatest near the tubing and decreases as the distance between it and the tubing issue additions. This is because kinetic energy is lost by dispersing into heat because of the shear of the environing air. The entire mass flow rate additions along the axial way when there is adequate radial distance off from the center line. The entire impulse flow rate appears to be a quadratic map of the distance from the tubing issue ; it has a upper limit where the merchandise of its speed and mass flow rate is the greatest.

Some betterments that can be made for this lab include the usage of a more precise rotameter for a greater grade of preciseness, a smaller pipe diameter for a more changeless radial flow, and the usage of a gas and a particular apparatus that could break demo the consequence of the nucleus flow and the entrainment part. Finally, the air flow rate should be higher to make a larger nucleus flow part.

Room Air

( stationary )

Copper Tube

Core Flow

Entrainment Region

Figure 1: Free Jet Diagram.

Figure 2: Speed V. Distance From Tube Exit secret plan.

Figure 3: Speed Ratio V. Radial Distance secret plan.

Figure 4: Mass Flow Rate Ratio V. Distance From Tube Exit secret plan.

Figure 5: Entire Momentum Rate V. Distance From Tube Exit secret plan.