Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary A Comparison Of The Baroque And Modern Essay

A Comparison Of The Baroque And Modern Essay

Flutes Essay, Research Paper

A comparative survey of the usage of the barqoue and modern flute in composing, with specific mention to? V Sonata IV for flute and figured bass by J.S Bach, and Sonata for flute and piano by Hindemith

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

The Baroque, or transverse flute is of great involvement to me, chiefly because of my ain flute playing experience. Since listening to a concert which included both a modern orchestra and a Baroque orchestra playing together in a specially written composing, and individually, I have considered the Baroque flute a much softer and more beautiful instrument, in building and sound. It is because of this involvement that I have decided to transport out my probe upon the difference between the two flutes, peculiarly in composing. First, I plan to analyze the development of the Baroque flute, as it is my chief focal point for this undertaking, and what its capablenesss were for composing. Then I will compare the flutes, utilizing the pieces I have chosen, one written for a Baroque flute, and one for a modern flute. From this probe, I hope to be able to pull some decisions about the better of the two flutes. At the minute I prefer the Baroque flute to the modern flute, and I would wish to turn out that it is so the better flute.

History of the Baroque flute

The earliest record of a flute is in a 9th century BC Chinese poem? ? Shih Ching? ? , but the first pictural grounds of a cross flute did non look until the 2nd century BC, on an urn in Italy. The recording equipment was the predecessor of the transverse flute, but bit by bit, the flute became the more dominant instrument. During the churrigueresque period ( between about 1650? V eighteenth century ) , four chief flutes were in usage. These were the soprano, the alto, the tenor and the bass. Each was pitched a perfect 5th apart ( apart from the alto and tenor, which were really similar ) , and had a scope of about two octaves. The bass flute was normally replaced by a sackbutt in air current ensembles, as it had a little scope and a weak sound. The Baroque flute? V which subsequently was developed into the Boehm flute, was in fact the descendant of the tenor flute. This was noted to hold the scope of the early female voice in 1619,

? ? Certain musicians are of the sentiment that the pitch of the transverse flute ( and the recording equipment ) is that of a true tenor. Yet if one plays this note against an organ pipe, so it is in fact a true soprano? ?

The stuff used to do the transverse flute in the 17th and 18th centuries was boxwood, but tusk or coal black flutes were besides available. Quantz ( more to come on Quantz ) was an of import individual in the development of the Baroque flute, as a flutist and writer of flute direction books and flute music. In 1660, he added the D? Q key, because the 7th hole was excessively far from the 6th for fingers to make with easiness. The most obvious alteration in the seventeenth century was the form of the flute. In the sixteenth century it was cylindrical, and by the eighteenth century, it had become more or less conelike. ( More to come on this impact ) The add-on of more keys was a slow procedure, as many professional participants resisted the alteration. The grounds for opposition were that the keys make more slurs impossible, they leak, and although they were utile for solos, the orchestral parts written for the flute were excessively easy to necessitate them. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, flutes merely had six keys and eight finger holes. The flute was still made of wood, with the keys being of brass. However, within 20 old ages, in 1820, two more keys had been added.

Hotteterre played a big portion in the development of the transverse flute, and in 1707, published his book? ? Principles de la Flute Traversiere? ? . In this he showed how to separate between enharmonic notes. He showed how notes with a level are really higher than those enharmonic equivalents with a crisp. He based intervals on via medias, his octave merely had twelve notes, instead than utilizing the purity of the major 3rds in all keys, as had been done before him. ( More to come on Hotteterre )

Plants for the Baroque flute

Before the seventeenth century, all music for the transverse flute was played an octave higher than it was written. In the seventeenth century, instrumental music was going more widespread, but the flute remained mostly ignored, and alternatively had to do make with fiddle or hautboy parts. Quantz said of his first flute lessons in 1719? V

? ? we merely played fast pieces, for this was my instructors great strength? K At that clip there were few pieces that had been specifically written for the flute. On the whole 1 made do with hautboy and fiddle pieces, which one adapted every bit good as one could. ? ?

The recording equipment possessed sonatas by Jaques Paisible ( c1650-1721 ) by 1698, but flute sonatas ony began to come up from 1715, the first by Johann Christian Schickard. In 1727, Robert Woodcock ( London ) published concertos for air current instruments with strings and basso figured bass. He was followed by Vivaldi, who published 6 concertos in Amsterdam in 1730.

Comparison

The obvious difference between the Baroque and modern flutes, is that the stuff for the Baroque flute is wood, and the modern is metal, chiefly Ag, or silver-plated. The Baroque flute besides is conelike, so the terminal that is blown into or across is wider, while the modern flute is cylindrical. The production of sound is fundamentally the same, though the Baroque flute requires less breath, and responds to the breath easy, ensuing in pear-shaped notes, with laid-back tones that blended with each other and with the strings. Fingerings outside of the D major graduated table were improbably hard, and were frequently out of melody. The pitch was adjusted by turning the flute off from the oral cavity, as with the modern flute, and besides by the mouthpiece, and control of breath. On the Baroque flute there are two different sets of accidentals, as antecedently discussed with mention to Hotteterre ( paragraph 4 ) . The modern flute was designed with equality in head, and besides with attending to ease of fingering and tuning? V as modern composers require, such as Hindemith, whose Sonata for flute will be looked at in greater item later. However, with this addition of equality, the flute lost the quality of the difference between the sounds of each key.

The Baroque flute was capable of two and a half octaves, alternatively of around three for the modern flute. Another difference between the flutes is that the Baroque flute? ? s upper notes were softer than the lower 1s, and all the notes on the modern flute have equal importance. This, nevertheless, is non a ruin of the Baroque flute, as it was interesting to hear the timber produced by this difference in strength of notes. Because the notes were so soft, the kineticss had to be built into the melodious line. Another result of the soft notes was that the flute was merely able to add coloring material to an ensemble instead than feature frequently as a soloist until subsequently, Bach is an illustration of one of the first to utilize the flute as a soloist, and by so alterations such as keys had already started to go on.

Composers bit by bit became cognizant of the sound of the woodwind instruments being so alone, and began to compose specific parts for them, so they gained more individualism. As orchestras grew in size, and concert halls besides grew larger, a much louder sound was required, which was non a quality of the wooden transverse flute. This led to the debut of metal as the stuff for flutes, which enabled so to go much louder, as required. However, with this alteration of stuff, the unique rich, rounded sound of the Baroque flute was lost. The debut of keys enabled participants to research tone colours much more and besides made the sound of the instrument much smoother. This besides meant that chromatic graduated tables became much easier and equal. The flute gained many qualities that were and are utile and necessary for modern composing, but in the procedure lost many qualities that contribute to the character of the Baroque flute. Some of these are things which I consider do it so beautiful, so there were as many losingss as additions ensuing from the alterations. The flute blends less with the strings, and the contrast between keies that was so dramatic, either dark and closed or bright and unfastened, was lost besides.

Bibliography

The Flute? V

Principles de la Flute Traversiere & # 8211 ; Hotteterre

A comparative survey of the usage of the barqoue and modern flute in composing, with specific mention to? V Sonata IV for flute and figured bass by J.S Bach, and Sonata for flute and piano by Hindemith

The Baroque, or transverse flute is of great involvement to me, chiefly because of my ain flute playing experience. Since listening to a concert which included both a modern orchestra and a Baroque orchestra playing together in a specially written composing, and individually, I have considered the Baroque flute a much softer and more beautiful instrument, in building and sound. It is because of this involvement that I have decided to transport out my probe upon the difference between the two flutes, peculiarly in composing. First, I plan to analyze the development of the Baroque flute, as it is my chief focal point for this undertaking, and what its capablenesss were for composing. Then I will compare the flutes, utilizing the pieces I have chosen, one written for a Baroque flute, and one for a modern flute. From this probe, I hope to be able to pull some decisions about the better of the two flutes. At the minute I prefer the Baroque flute to the modern flute, and I would wish to turn out that it is so the better flute.

History of the Baroque flute

The earliest record of a flute is in a 9th century BC Chinese poem? ? Shih Ching? ? , but the first pictural grounds of a cross flute did non look until the 2nd century BC, on an urn in Italy. The recording equipment was the predecessor of the transverse flute, but bit by bit, the flute became the more dominant instrument. During the churrigueresque period ( between about 1650? V eighteenth century ) , four chief flutes were in usage. These were the soprano, the alto, the tenor and the bass. Each was pitched a perfect 5th apart ( apart from the alto and tenor, which were really similar ) , and had a scope of about two octaves. The bass flute was normally replaced by a sackbutt in air current ensembles, as it had a little scope and a weak sound. The Baroque flute? V which subsequently was developed into the Boehm flute, was in fact the descendant of the tenor flute. This was noted to hold the scope of the early female voice in 1619,

? ? Certain musicians are of the sentiment that the pitch of the transverse flute ( and the recording equipment ) is that of a true tenor. Yet if one plays this note against an organ pipe, so it is in fact a true soprano? ?

The stuff used to do the transverse flute in the 17th and 18th centuries was boxwood, but tusk or coal black flutes were besides available. Quantz ( more to come on Quantz ) was an of import individual in the development of the Baroque flute, as a flutist and writer of flute direction books and flute music. In 1660, he added the D? Q key, because the 7th hole was excessively far from the 6th for fingers to make with easiness. The most obvious alteration in the seventeenth century was the form of the flute. In the sixteenth century it was cylindrical, and by the eighteenth century, it had become more or less conelike. ( More to come on this impact ) The add-on of more keys was a slow procedure, as many professional participants resisted the alteration. The grounds for opposition were that the keys make more slurs impossible, they leak, and although they were utile for solos, the orchestral parts written for the flute were excessively easy to necessitate them. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, flutes merely had six keys and eight finger holes. The flute was still made of wood, with the keys being of brass. However, within 20 old ages, in 1820, two more keys had been added.

Hotteterre played a big portion in the development of the transverse flute, and in 1707, published his book? ? Principles de la Flute Traversiere? ? . In this he showed how to separate between enharmonic notes. He showed how notes with a level are really higher than those enharmonic equivalents with a crisp. He based intervals on via medias, his octave merely had twelve notes, instead than utilizing the purity of the major 3rds in all keys, as had been done before him. ( More to come on Hotteterre )

Plants for the Baroque flute

Before the seventeenth century, all music for the transverse flute was played an octave higher than it

was written. In the seventeenth century, instrumental music was going more widespread, but the flute remained mostly ignored, and alternatively had to do make with fiddle or hautboy parts. Quantz said of his first flute lessons in 1719? V

? ? we merely played fast pieces, for this was my instructors great strength? K At that clip there were few pieces that had been specifically written for the flute. On the whole 1 made do with hautboy and fiddle pieces, which one adapted every bit good as one could. ? ?

The recording equipment possessed sonatas by Jaques Paisible ( c1650-1721 ) by 1698, but flute sonatas ony began to come up from 1715, the first by Johann Christian Schickard. In 1727, Robert Woodcock ( London ) published concertos for air current instruments with strings and basso figured bass. He was followed by Vivaldi, who published 6 concertos in Amsterdam in 1730.

Comparison

The obvious difference between the Baroque and modern flutes, is that the stuff for the Baroque flute is wood, and the modern is metal, chiefly Ag, or silver-plated. The Baroque flute besides is conelike, so the terminal that is blown into or across is wider, while the modern flute is cylindrical. The production of sound is fundamentally the same, though the Baroque flute requires less breath, and responds to the breath easy, ensuing in pear-shaped notes, with laid-back tones that blended with each other and with the strings. Fingerings outside of the D major graduated table were improbably hard, and were frequently out of melody. The pitch was adjusted by turning the flute off from the oral cavity, as with the modern flute, and besides by the mouthpiece, and control of breath. On the Baroque flute there are two different sets of accidentals, as antecedently discussed with mention to Hotteterre ( paragraph 4 ) . The modern flute was designed with equality in head, and besides with attending to ease of fingering and tuning? V as modern composers require, such as Hindemith, whose Sonata for flute will be looked at in greater item later. However, with this addition of equality, the flute lost the quality of the difference between the sounds of each key.

The Baroque flute was capable of two and a half octaves, alternatively of around three for the modern flute. Another difference between the flutes is that the Baroque flute? ? s upper notes were softer than the lower 1s, and all the notes on the modern flute have equal importance. This, nevertheless, is non a ruin of the Baroque flute, as it was interesting to hear the timber produced by this difference in strength of notes. Because the notes were so soft, the kineticss had to be built into the melodious line. Another result of the soft notes was that the flute was merely able to add coloring material to an ensemble instead than feature frequently as a soloist until subsequently, Bach is an illustration of one of the first to utilize the flute as a soloist, and by so alterations such as keys had already started to go on.

Composers bit by bit became cognizant of the sound of the woodwind instruments being so alone, and began to compose specific parts for them, so they gained more individualism. As orchestras grew in size, and concert halls besides grew larger, a much louder sound was required, which was non a quality of the wooden transverse flute. This led to the debut of metal as the stuff for flutes, which enabled so to go much louder, as required. However, with this alteration of stuff, the unique rich, rounded sound of the Baroque flute was lost. The debut of keys enabled participants to research tone colours much more and besides made the sound of the instrument much smoother. This besides meant that chromatic graduated tables became much easier and equal. The flute gained many qualities that were and are utile and necessary for modern composing, but in the procedure lost many qualities that contribute to the character of the Baroque flute. Some of these are things which I consider do it so beautiful, so there were as many losingss as additions ensuing from the alterations. The flute blends less with the strings, and the contrast between keies that was so dramatic, either dark and closed or bright and unfastened, was lost besides.

Bibliography

The Flute? V

Principles de la Flute Traversiere & # 8211 ; Hotteterre

A comparative survey of the usage of the barqoue and modern flute in composing, with specific mention to? V Sonata IV for flute and figured bass by J.S Bach, and Sonata for flute and piano by Hindemith

The Baroque, or transverse flute is of great involvement to me, chiefly because of my ain flute playing experience. Since listening to a concert which included both a modern orchestra and a Baroque orchestra playing together in a specially written composing, and individually, I have considered the Baroque flute a much softer and more beautiful instrument, in building and sound. It is because of this involvement that I have decided to transport out my probe upon the difference between the two flutes, peculiarly in composing. First, I plan to analyze the development of the Baroque flute, as it is my chief focal point for this undertaking, and what its capablenesss were for composing. Then I will compare the flutes, utilizing the pieces I have chosen, one written for a Baroque flute, and one for a modern flute. From this probe, I hope to be able to pull some decisions about the better of the two flutes. At the minute I prefer the Baroque flute to the modern flute, and I would wish to turn out that it is so the better flute.

History of the Baroque flute

The earliest record of a flute is in a 9th century BC Chinese poem? ? Shih Ching? ? , but the first pictural grounds of a cross flute did non look until the 2nd century BC, on an urn in Italy. The recording equipment was the predecessor of the transverse flute, but bit by bit, the flute became the more dominant instrument. During the churrigueresque period ( between about 1650? V eighteenth century ) , four chief flutes were in usage. These were the soprano, the alto, the tenor and the bass. Each was pitched a perfect 5th apart ( apart from the alto and tenor, which were really similar ) , and had a scope of about two octaves. The bass flute was normally replaced by a sackbutt in air current ensembles, as it had a little scope and a weak sound. The Baroque flute? V which subsequently was developed into the Boehm flute, was in fact the descendant of the tenor flute. This was noted to hold the scope of the early female voice in 1619,

? ? Certain musicians are of the sentiment that the pitch of the transverse flute ( and the recording equipment ) is that of a true tenor. Yet if one plays this note against an organ pipe, so it is in fact a true soprano? ?

The stuff used to do the transverse flute in the 17th and 18th centuries was boxwood, but tusk or coal black flutes were besides available. Quantz ( more to come on Quantz ) was an of import individual in the development of the Baroque flute, as a flutist and writer of flute direction books and flute music. In 1660, he added the D? Q key, because the 7th hole was excessively far from the 6th for fingers to make with easiness. The most obvious alteration in the seventeenth century was the form of the flute. In the sixteenth century it was cylindrical, and by the eighteenth century, it had become more or less conelike. ( More to come on this impact ) The add-on of more keys was a slow procedure, as many professional participants resisted the alteration. The grounds for opposition were that the keys make more slurs impossible, they leak, and although they were utile for solos, the orchestral parts written for the flute were excessively easy to necessitate them. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, flutes merely had six keys and eight finger holes. The flute was still made of wood, with the keys being of brass. However, within 20 old ages, in 1820, two more keys had been added.

Hotteterre played a big portion in the development of the transverse flute, and in 1707, published his book? ? Principles de la Flute Traversiere? ? . In this he showed how to separate between enharmonic notes. He showed how notes with a level are really higher than those enharmonic equivalents with a crisp. He based intervals on via medias, his octave merely had twelve notes, instead than utilizing the purity of the major 3rds in all keys, as had been done before him. ( More to come on Hotteterre )

Plants for the Baroque flute

Before the seventeenth century, all music for the transverse flute was played an octave higher than it was written. In the seventeenth century, instrumental music was going more widespread, but the flute remained mostly ignored, and alternatively had to do make with fiddle or hautboy parts. Quantz said of his first flute lessons in 1719? V

? ? we merely played fast pieces, for this was my instructors great strength? K At that clip there were few pieces that had been specifically written for the flute. On the whole 1 made do with hautboy and fiddle pieces, which one adapted every bit good as one could. ? ?

The recording equipment possessed sonatas by Jaques Paisible ( c1650-1721 ) by 1698, but flute sonatas ony began to come up from 1715, the first by Johann Christian Schickard. In 1727, Robert Woodcock ( London ) published concertos for air current instruments with strings and basso figured bass. He was followed by Vivaldi, who published 6 concertos in Amsterdam in 1730.

Comparison

The obvious difference between the Baroque and modern flutes, is that the stuff for the Baroque flute is wood, and the modern is metal, chiefly Ag, or silver-plated. The Baroque flute besides is conelike, so the terminal that is blown into or across is wider, while the modern flute is cylindrical. The production of sound is fundamentally the same, though the Baroque flute requires less breath, and responds to the breath easy, ensuing in pear-shaped notes, with laid-back tones that blended with each other and with the strings. Fingerings outside of the D major graduated table were improbably hard, and were frequently out of melody. The pitch was adjusted by turning the flute off from the oral cavity, as with the modern flute, and besides by the mouthpiece, and control of breath. On the Baroque flute there are two different sets of accidentals, as antecedently discussed with mention to Hotteterre ( paragraph 4 ) . The modern flute was designed with equality in head, and besides with attending to ease of fingering and tuning? V as modern composers require, such as Hindemith, whose Sonata for flute will be looked at in greater item later. However, with this addition of equality, the flute lost the quality of the difference between the sounds of each key.

The Baroque flute was capable of two and a half octaves, alternatively of around three for the modern flute. Another difference between the flutes is that the Baroque flute? ? s upper notes were softer than the lower 1s, and all the notes on the modern flute have equal importance. This, nevertheless, is non a ruin of the Baroque flute, as it was interesting to hear the timber produced by this difference in strength of notes. Because the notes were so soft, the kineticss had to be built into the melodious line. Another result of the soft notes was that the flute was merely able to add coloring material to an ensemble instead than feature frequently as a soloist until subsequently, Bach is an illustration of one of the first to utilize the flute as a soloist, and by so alterations such as keys had already started to go on.

Composers bit by bit became cognizant of the sound of the woodwind instruments being so alone, and began to compose specific parts for them, so they gained more individualism. As orchestras grew in size, and concert halls besides grew larger, a much louder sound was required, which was non a quality of the wooden transverse flute. This led to the debut of metal as the stuff for flutes, which enabled so to go much louder, as required. However, with this alteration of stuff, the unique rich, rounded sound of the Baroque flute was lost. The debut of keys enabled participants to research tone colours much more and besides made the sound of the instrument much smoother. This besides meant that chromatic graduated tables became much easier and equal. The flute gained many qualities that were and are utile and necessary for modern composing, but in the procedure lost many qualities that contribute to the character of the Baroque flute. Some of these are things which I consider do it so beautiful, so there were as many losingss as additions ensuing from the alterations. The flute blends less with the strings, and the contrast between keies that was so dramatic, either dark and closed or bright and unfastened, was lost besides.

Bibliography

The Flute? V

Principles de la Flute Traversiere & # 8211 ; Hotteterre