The human brainconsists of about 90% of water. It isroughly categorised into 3 parts: Cerebrum, Cerebellum and brain stem1.
Thebasic functions of these parts are to sense, control various activities such ascontrolling secretion and maintaining the entire body function. Cerebrum, dealswith emotions, movement initiation, consciousness awareness of sensation.Cerebellum, deals with muscle movement and balance maintenance. Brain stem,controls heart regulation, respiration, and hormone secretion2.
The brain ismost important part of the human body any kind of imbalance leads to variousdiseases which can be long term or short term duration, curable or non-curabledepending on its severity. Some of the diseases related to brain are: AutismSpectrum Disorder, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, cerebral palsy, etc. Autism is derived fromGreek word meaning “isolated self”. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a braindisorder related to “Spectrum” of symptoms, such as incapability to understandemotions and gestures, disconnected to people in surroundings, difficulty inreading, writing and speaking, repetitive behaviour 6. This is usually anon-curable disorder and is diagnosed in subjects above 1year of age.
It can beconsidered as a disorder rather than a disease; its diagnosis is difficult intoday’s time which is encouraging researchers in Signal Processing,Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence domain to detect in early stages andprevent it from increase in its serverity. This disorder is increasing at anexponential rate. According to reports of April 2017, by Centre for DiseaseControl and Prevention(CDC), 1 in every 68 child 3 is detected with Autismwith boys to girls ratio being 4.5:1 2. Figure 1 shows the statistics of ASDpatients of various years according to the survey conducted by Autism andDevelopmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM).
ASD begin in childhood and continues into adolescenceand adulthood. While some people with ASD can live independently, others havesevere disabilities and require life-long care and support. Globally, access to services and support for people withASD is inadequate. It can be categorised into three types: Low functioningAutism (LFA) or mild autism, Medium functioning Autism (MFA) or moderate autismand High functioning Autism (HFA) or severe autism