8. Framework: · Children Act 1989 Section

8. Explain the duty ofcare for an early years practitioner to identify and act on a support need.

Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is definedfor the purposes of Working Together to Safeguard Children. Key principles for achild centred and coordinated approach to safeguarding. Safeguarding iseveryone’s responsibility: for services to be effective each professional and organisationshould play their full part; and a child centred approach: for services to beeffective they should be based on a clear understanding of the needs and viewsof children. ·       Protectingchildren from maltreatment; ·       Preventingimpairment of children’s health or development;·       Ensuringthat children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safeand effective care; ·       Takingaction to enable all children to have the best outcomes·       Childrenare best protected when professionals are clear about what is required of themindividually, and how they need to work together.Legal Framework:·       ChildrenAct 1989Section 47 of the Children Act 1989 places a duty on thelocal authority to make an investigation if they believe a child in their areais suffering or is likely to suffer from significant harm.

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The local authoritymust also decide whether to seek an order, provide services and/or review thecase at a later date.Section 17 of the Children Act 1989 places a duty on localauthorities to provide a range of services for children in need. This means allof the local authority services and includes the provision of day care servicesfor the under 8’s, as well as support for children who have suffered abuse.·       ChildrenAct 2004Section11 of the Children Act 2004 places responsibility on key agencies to safeguardall children and promote their welfare. The act encourages agencies to shareearly concerns about the safety and welfare of children and to ensurepreventative action before a crisis develops.·       ChildcareAct 2006Provides a legal framework for inspection and regulation ofchildcare; this includes the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) for earlyyears and childcare provision from birth to 31st August following their fifthbirthday and the Childcare Register for services provided for older childrenand young people. Working Together to Safeguard Children 2015 “The legislativerequirements and expectations on individual services to safeguard and promotethe welfare of children; and a clear framework for Local Safeguarding ChildrenBoards (LSCB’s) to monitor the effectiveness of local services. Effectivesafeguarding systems are child centred.

Failings in safeguarding systems aretoo often the result of losing sight of the needs and views of the childrenwithin them, or placing the interests of adults ahead of the needs of children.Everyone who works with children – including teachers, GPs, nurses, midwives,health visitors, early years professionals, youth workers, police, Accident andEmergency staff, paediatricians, voluntary and community workers and socialworkers – has a responsibility for keeping them safe. No single professionalcan have a full picture of a child’s needs and circumstances and, if childrenand families are to receive the right help at the right time, everyone who comesinto contact with them has a role to play in identifying concerns, sharinginformation and taking prompt action.”The paramount duty of all childcare practitioners is to keepthe children in their care safe from harm and to ensure their well-being at alltimes.

To help them, there are plenty of CPD courses staged by early yearstraining organisations, specialist groups and charities, on a host of topicsfrom sun safety to anaphylactic shock. While it is not clear yet what will beincluded in the welfare section of the reformed EYFS, there are certain courseswhich must still be booked. Training in paediatric/childcare first aid is arequirement for all childcare practitioners who require registration by OFSTED.While these skills are probably rarely used, early years staff need to beconfident and proficient in them, so it is essential to arrange regularrefresher training.

Staff involved in food preparation must hold the CharteredInstitute of Environmental Health (CIEH) Level 2 Award in Food Safety to meetthe requirements of the Food Safety Act and the Food Safety Regulations. DameClare Tickell, in her review of the EYFS, recommends that the welfare sectionof the EYFS is renamed the ‘safeguarding and welfare requirements’ and that thewelfare requirements are redrafted to improve their clarity. She also proposedthat the EYFS sets out clearly the high-level content of the child protectiontraining that lead safeguarding practitioners should be required to attend. Thereare many courses on safeguarding.

The Childcare Consultancy has developed a bespokecourse reviewing the Plymouth Review (see case study) which looks in detail atpoints it raised, such as the inappropriate culture in the nursery, andsafeguarding recruitment including how to ask ‘value-based’ interview questionsto find out how a candidate thinks. Inclusion is key to effective practice inthe EYFS, which places such emphasis on the individual child. Staff can findthemselves supporting families and children with special needs with which theyare unfamiliar.One of the toughest tasks an early years practitioner canever face is supporting a grieving child. Help is at hand from the ChildBereavement Society, which runs a course called Grief and bereavement in earlyyears settings. This gives practitioners an insight into very young children’sunderstanding of death and the impact of bereavement on their holisticdevelopment, and helps them to develop a framework for appropriate responses todeath within the setting.

 9. Explain the practitioners role inidentifying support needs of children and/or families within own early yearssetting. Everyoneinvolved in the care of children has a role to play in their protection. As anearly years childcare practitioner you are in a unique position to observe anychanges in a child’s behaviour or appearance. If you have any reason to suspectthat a child in your care is being abused, or is likely to be abused, you havea duty of care to take action on behalf of the child. We mustbelieve the child, listen carefully to the child, take it seriously, reassurethe child they are right to tell, record the information as accurately as youcan, using the child words, include the time, setting and those present, aswell as what was said.

This should be dated and signed. We do not display anynegative/shocked body language,  jump toconclusions, speculate or accuse anybody,  interrogate the child. It is all right to askfor clarification, but you should not ask leading questions. Misguided orinappropriate questioning can do more harm than good promise to keep what thechild tells you a secret the child needs to know that you have to talk, tosomeone who will be able to help them attempt to examine or undress the childfor evidence of non-accidental injury, or take photographs. Remember – Allthose who work with children have a responsibility for their care. Think aboutthe child’s welfare as the most important consideration; and what does this meanfor that individual child in his/her own setting? Keep afactual record of any concerns, i.

e. exactly what you have seen and heard. Ifthe child says anything at all which gives you a concern this must be recordedin the child’s own words and not your own. You may jeopardise futureproceedings if you substitute the child words for your own. Sign and date yourrecords for future reference. It is good practice to share any initial concernswith the child parents, if you consider it appropriate, as there may be aperfectly innocent explanation for changes that you have observed, for example:·       asudden change in behaviour could be due to the death or illness of a closefamily member or a pet·       weightloss and/or failing to thrive could be symptoms of an illness·       aninjury which could have been inflicted accidentally by a sibling or anotherchildHowever, if:·       yoususpect sexual abuse or·       youdo not get an explanation which you feel is consistent or acceptable fromparents/carer or·       youfeel that discussing the issue with parents may put the child at further riskof significant harm or you think a criminal offence has been committedTo give allchildren the best opportunities for effective development and learning inKnowledge and Understanding of the World practitioners should give particularattention to the following areas.

Positive Relationships·       Useparents’ knowledge to extend children’s experiences of the world.·       Helpchildren become aware of, explore and question differences in gender,ethnicity, language, religion, culture, special educational needs anddisability issues. ·        Support children with sensory impairment byproviding supplementary experience and information to enhance their learningabout the world around them.

Enabling Environments·       Createa stimulating environment that offers a range of activities which will encouragechildren’s interest and curiosity, bothindoors and outdoors. ·        Make effective use of outdoors, including thelocal neighbourhood.·       Usecorrect terms so that, for example, children will enjoy naming a chrysalis ifthe practitioner uses its correct name.·        Pose carefully framed open-ended questions,such as “How can we…?” or “What would happen if…?”.Learning and Development·       Planactivities based on first-hand experiences that encourage exploration,experimentation, observation, problem solving, prediction, critical thinking,decision making and discussion.·       Teachskills and knowledge in the context of practical activities, for example,learning about the characteristics of liquids and solids by involving childrenin melting chocolate or cooking eggs.·       Encouragechildren to tell each other what they have found out, to speculate on futurefindings or to describe their experiences. This enables them to rehearse andreflect upon their knowledge and to practise new vocabulary.

·        Support children in using a range of ICT toinclude cameras, photocopiers, CD players, tape recorders and programmable toysin addition to computers.·        Give children accurate information whichchallenges cultural, racial, social and gender stereotypes. Also to giveall children the best opportunity for effective development and learning inCreative Development practitioners should give particular attention to thefollowing areas.PositiveRelationships·       Ensurechildren feel secure enough to ‘have a go’, learn new things and beadventurous.·       Valuewhat children can do and children’s own ideas rather than expecting them to reproduce someone else’s picture,dance or model, for example.·        Give opportunities for children to workalongside artists and other creative adults so that they see at first handdifferent ways of expressing and communicating ideas and different responses tomedia and materials.

·        Accommodate children’s specific religious or culturalbeliefs relating to particular forms of art or methods of representation. The physicaldevelopment of babies and young children must be encouraged through theprovision of opportunities for them to be active and interactive and to improvetheir skills of coordination, control, manipulation and movement. They must besupported in using all of their senses to learn about the world around them andto make connections between new information and what they already know.

Theymust be supported in developing an understanding of the importance of physicalactivity and making healthy choices in relation to food. WhatPhysical Development means for children:  Babies and children learn by being active andPhysical Development takes place across all areas of Learning and Development. PhysicalDevelopment:·       helpschildren gain confidence in what they can do.·       enableschildren to feel the positive benefits of being healthy and active.·       helpschildren to develop a positive sense of well-being. Good health in the early years helps tosafeguard health and well-being throughout life. It is important that childrendevelop healthy habits when they first learn about food and activity.

Growing withappropriate weight gain in the first years of life helps to guard againstobesity in later life. To give allchildren the best opportunities for effective development and learning inPhysical Development practitioners should give particular attention to thefollowing areas:·       Buildchildren’s confidence to take manageable risks in their play.·       Motivatechildren to be active and help them develop movement skills through praise, encouragement,games and appropriate guidance.·        Notice and value children’s natural and spontaneous movements,through which they are finding out about their bodies and exploring sensationssuch as balance.·       Providetime to support children’sunderstanding of how exercise, eating, sleeping, and hygiene promote goodhealth.

·       Provideequipment and resources that are sufficient, challenging and interesting andthat can be used in a variety of ways, or to support specific skills.·        Allow sufficient space, indoors and outdoors,to set up relevant activities for energetic play.·       Providetime and opportunities for children with physical disabilities or motorimpairments to develop their physical skills, working in partnership with relevantspecialists such as physiotherapists and occupational therapists.·       Useadditional adult help, as necessary, to support individuals and to encourageincreased independence in physical activities.·       Planactivities that offer physical challenges and plenty of opportunities forphysical activity.·        Give sufficient time for children to use arange of equipment to persist in activities, practising new and existing skillsand learning from their mistakes.

·        Introduce appropriate vocabulary to children,alongside their actions.·       Treatmealtimes as an opportunity to promote children’s social development, whileenjoying food and highlighting the importance of making healthy choices.  Educationsettings must make sure they meet the “reasonable” special educational needs ofchildren. This means that education settings – early years settings, schoolsand colleges – should be able to meet the needs of most children with alearning disability. If a child or young person has SEN, or a setting thinksthat they might have SEN, they must follow this process:·       theymust talk to a child’s parents or the young person to work out what supportmight be needed.Once a childor young person’s needs have been identified, settings must decide whatoutcomes they want the child or young person to achieve and what support shouldbe put in place to help them achieve those outcomes.

There should be a cleardate set to review whether these outcomes have been achieved. Parents/the youngperson must be involved in agreeing these outcomes. The staff, supported by theSENCO where relevant, should put this support into practice. The supportreceived by the child or young person should be reviewed by the setting andfamilies/the young person to see if it is working or have been achieved. If itis, it might continue. If it is not or the outcomes have been achieved, some ofthe arrangements might be changed.Schools mustset out their arrangements for supporting pupils with SEN in an online policy.You will be able to view this policy via your Local Offer.

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