Plasma membrane: Phospholipid bilayer (double layer) – composed of carbohydrates and protein – separates the cell from its surrounding environment.Cytoplasm: Gel-like substance that fills the inside of the cell (includes everything inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus). Organelles are located in the cytoplasm and the cytoplasm holds the organelles in place.Nucleus: Large rounded substance in the center of the cell, enclosed by a nuclear envelope (has pores which allow substances to move in and out).
It is the control center of the cell “brain” & contains DNA.Mitochondria: The “power plants” of cells. Produce energy needed for the cell (ATP).Endoplasmic reticulum: Network of transport channels within the cell. Extends from the plasma membrane to the nucleus.
Transports proteins. -Rough E.R.: Ribosome’s dot the outer surface. Makes and packages proteins.
-Smooth E.R.: No ribosome’s on the outer surface. Makes certain lipids and breaks down carbohydrates.Ribosomes: Some are attached to the Rough E.
R. and some are scattered around the cytoplasm. They make protein. Also called “protein factories”.Golgi apparatus: Process proteins from the Endoplasmic Reticulum.Lysosomes: The cells digestive system. They digest worn out organelles, food particles and viruses/ bacteria that got into the cell.Proteasomes: Breakdown/degrade unneeded, damaged and faulty proteins.
Peroxisomes: Detoxify harmful substances that enter the body.Cytoskeleton: The cells internal supporting framework. Provides shape to the cell, gives the cell structural integrity, and can move the cell/its parts.Cell fibers: Support parts of the cell such as; endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and “free” ribosome’s.
-Microfilaments: smallest cell fibers. -Intermediate filaments: thicker than microfilaments. -Microtubules: thickest of the cell fibers.Centrosome: Coordinates the building and breaking apart of microtubules in the cell. Important in cell division.Pages 77-79 & 82-89 in Anatomy and Physiology textbookPages 1-4 of PowerPoint handouts in class (Chapter 3- Anatomy of Cells)