2.1 realise them. In a more specific

2.1 PUBLIC POLICYIkpi (1997) definesgovernance as the total ability to organise, synthesize and direct thevarious actions of the working parts of government machinery in order for sucha government to perform meaningfully, creditable and acceptable.The term Government policy,which in most cases is referred to as “Public policy”, accordingto Wikipedia is “the principled guide to action taken by theadministrative executive branches of the state with regardto a class of issues, in a manner consistentwith law and institutional customs.

A public policy can beregarded as a government’s programme of action or anythinggovernment chooses to do or not to do for its citizens, while other scholarsbelieve that policy is what government does and not what government intends todo or what government says it is going to do. Therefore public policy can beviewed as an action rather than intention.Public policy is based oncontributions made by political office; bearers and public officials at variouslevels of the official hierarchy and even on contributions made by privateconcerns.W. Fox. And Ivan H. Meyer(1995:96) defines policy as “Goals and objectives within a givensituation and the methods to realise them.

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In a more specific sense itindicates the steps taken to realise the objectives of a public authority”.If you look inthe dictionary under policy, public policy or social policy, you find adefinition that amounts to the following: a system of regulatory, fundingpriorities, guidelines and interventions promulgated by a person, group orgovernment for changing, maintenance or creation of living conditions that areconducive to human welfare.Dye (1975; 1) definespublic policy as “what the government chooses to do or not to do”. He alsogoes to explain, asserting that “Governments do many things.

They regulateconflicts within society, they organize society to carry on conflictswith other societies, and they distribute a great variety of symbolic rewardsand material services to members of the society and extracts money fromthe society, most at times in the form of taxes. Thus policies mayregulate behaviour, organize bureaucracies, distribute benefits, andextract taxes or all of these things at once”.(Marume 1988) statesthat a public policy is “A skillful, comprehensive, enforceable,binding, legitimate, authoritative, deliberate and purposeful framework of andfor interaction within which a multiplicity of policy decisions by politicaloffice – bearers can be made and various courses of action can be put intooperation by public officials (administrative, technical and operationalofficials and workers) in order to realise the predetermined governmental aimsand objectives as economically, efficiently and effectively as possible”.

Public Policy is “a setof inter-related decisions taken by a political actor or group of actorsconcerning the selection of goals and the means of achieving them within aspecified situation where those decisions should, in principle, be within thepower of those actors to achieve” (Jenkins, 1978) In reality, Public policynot only encompasses government activities or actions but also its outputs asits affects members of the society, therefore it cannot be restricted to theactivities of the government. Mostly what these measures, laws,principles, and interventions are intended to do is shape society in desirableways: to promote behaviours that yield outcomes conducive to humanwelfare.The process of public policyinvolves decisions and decision making, but it is when an authoritative policymaker usually government, decides on a preferred option that it becomes apublic policy towards achieving some social end or public good. Public policyis therefore, a means to achieving an end that is intended to benefitsociety. Common usage of the term “policy” also includes thewise and expedient conduct of management; thereby blurring the line betweenpolicy and administration and causing confusion in the roles of elected legislators. Policymakingcan be an adversarial process, characterised by the clash of competing andconflicting interests and viewpoints rather than an impartial, disinterested,or “objective” search for “correct” solutions for policyissues. It can be simple or complex depending on various, such as; size ofthe policy making body, homogeneity or heterogeneity of the culture of wherethe policy is being made, etc.”When corruption penetratesthe implementation process, public policies become mutated and the desiredgoals may not be achieved.

Most public policies are formulatedand funds appropriated for, but corruption like an octopus hascontinued to entangle, ruin and make impossible the implementationprocess.” (Ayuba, A. A. et.al. 2012). 2.2 CORRUPTIONCorruption is the abuse ofentrusted power for private gain.

(Transparency International 2006)Corruption is theinternational noncompliance with arm’s length relationship aimed at derivingsome advantage for the behaviour for one’s self or for related individuals. (Tanzi1995)Corruption is the unlawfuluse of official power or influence by an official of the government either toenrich himself or further his course and/or any other person at the expense ofthe public, in contravention of his oath of office and or/contrary to theconventions or laws that are in force. (Ekiyor 2005)Akindele (1995) defines itas any form of reciprocal behaviour or transaction where both the power/officeholder can respectively initiate the inducement of each other by some rewardsto grant (illegal) preferential treatment or favour against the principles andinterest of specific organisation (or public) within the society.You and Khagram (2005) showthat income inequality is a significant determinant of corruption.

Withincreases in equality, the rich, as a class or as an interest group, can uselobbying, political contributions or bribery to influence law-implementingprocesses and to buy favourable interpretations of the law.In general terms, corruptionperception has favoured the growth of institutional instability and thedeterioration of relationships amongst individuals, institutions and states.Hunt (2007) shows thenegative distributional impact of corruption not by arguing that poor peopleexpend a higher percentage of their income on bribes, but by stating thatcorruption can be additional cost on the victims of misfortune.

In the real sense, politicalcorruption is the use of legislated powers by government official forillegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, suchas repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is notconsidered political corruption.Khan (1996) defined corruptionas an act which deviates from the formal rules of conduct governing the actionsof someone in a position of public authority because of private – regarding -motive such as wealth, power or status.The definitions above serveas an indicator that corruption is mostly perpetrated for personal gain and iscounterproductive to the economic health of the country and the overall growthof such country. Heidenheimer (1996) defines corruption by threeapproaches: public office-centred, market-centred and public interest-centred.He has illustrated these three approaches with the help of researches ofcorruption literature.Public Office-centredcorruption: Corruption is ‘behaviourwhich deviates from the formal duties of a public role because of privateregarding (close family, personal, private clique) pecuniary or status gains orviolates rules against the exercise of certain types of private regardinginfluence. Market-centred Corruption: ‘A corrupt civil servant regards his (public) office as a(separate) business, the income of which he will seek to maximum.

The officethen becomes a maximising unit. The size of his income depends upon the marketsituation and his talents for finding the point maximal gain on the public’s(or clients’) demand curve’. Public Interest-centredcorruption: “The pattern of corruptioncan be said to exist whenever a power holder who is charged with doing certainthings i.e., who is responsible functionary or officeholder is by monetary orother rewards not legally provided for induced to take actions which favourwhoever provides the rewards and thereby does damage to the public and itsinterests”.Treisman (2000)and Paldam (1999) cited in Jens and Odd-Helge (2001) states thatthe level of GDP per capital holds most of the explanatory power of the variouscorruption indicators. Transparently international (2005) opine that”corruption is one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world whichundermines good government, fundamentally distorts public policy, leads to themisallocation of resources harms the private sector development and as wellhurts the poor”. 2.

2.1 TYPES OF CORRUPTIONCorruption exists in variousforms, due to the fact that there is no generally accepted definition ofcorruption, there is no generally accepted typology of corruptioneither. Therefore, it can be said that that typologies for corruption are multi–faceted. Weber (1964) developed a typology of corruption on the basis ofsubjective intentions that have or expect the individuals such as gaining powerand influence, economic and business success, self-enrichment, social motives,opportunism, etc.A corruption can basicallybe categorised into 3; Political corruption, Economic corruption and PublicAdministration corruption.

POLITICAL CORRUPTION: Political corruption is perpetrated at the highestlevels of the political system. This is evident when politicians taskedwith ensuring the maintenance, development and survival of the state inaccordance with the law, in the name of the people, are corrupt individuals.These individuals displace public interest for their private interests oragendas.Political corruption is notonly characterised by misappropriation of state funds but also the manipulationof state laws at the legislative level, breach of professional ethics whichbrings about institutional decay. Power in the context of politicalcorruption is to further the interests of those who wield it.There is a lack of properaccountability between elected leaders and the electorate.

In authoritarian states, the legal framework for which corruptpractises are evaluated and presided about are compromised, hence leading tofurther abuse of power by political leaders.  However, due to variousexamples of decadence in democratic governments, political corruption cannot beseen as restricted to authoritarian states.There are several types ofpolitical corruptions, such as;a) Improper political contributions.Thisinvolves payments paid so as to have certain undue influence over politicalparties or its members while they are in office. To distinguish thisfrom legitimate political contributions is very difficult. The politicaleconomy literature explains distortions due to the influence of specialpolitical interest groups (Coate and Morris, 1995).b) Embezzlement:Embezzlementis characterised by the misappropriation of funds meant to further theinterests of an institution (political).

It is the transfer or diversion ofpublic funds, monies, capital into private possession. In mostcases, its perpetrated by inflation of contracts by governmentofficials or collusion with contractors or sub-contractors, thus serving as anextra source of income for such officials if they can pull it off.As seen inthe cases of Nigeria, estimates for white elephant government contracts areinflated to mind bugling proportions then through collective involvement incorrupt practices, these contracts are awarded to the same officials or theirfamily and friends. ECONOMIC CORRUPTION:Economic corruption can bedefined as the sacrifice of the principal’s interest for the agent’sinterest. (Vargas-Hernández). The major aim of economic corruption is themaking of profit through unconventional practices by organisations orcompanies. These fraudulent practices carried out by organisations in order tomake profit have an adverse effect on one party or the other.

i.e. thestate, the economy or even the consumers. For example, the use ofsubstandard materials in the manufacturing of Samsung s7 mobile phones in 2016which caused the combustion of s7 mobiles, therefore making it a health hazardto its consumers and also a security threat at airports leading the mobilephones were banned from being carried upon aircrafts across the world so as toprevent explosions of airlines and the loss of lives. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CORRUPTION:This is characterised by lackof transparency, effectiveness, accountability, honesty etc. bypublic servants.

 It involves the use of public office for private gain.I.e. Nepotism, which is seen in the Nigeria Civil Service where positions arefilled by incompetent individuals who have connections to those who occupysenior positions in the civil service rather than qualified individuals. Mostof these incompetent individuals are immediate family members or kin to publicservants.Bribery is one of the mostprevalent types of public-administration corruption, as public servants feelentitled to certain kinds of incentives (usually of the monetary kind), beforethey have to perform the tasks they were hired to perform by the government.

Ina lot of cases, individuals purposely bribe public officials, who also readilyaccept it, in order to avoid due processing for whatever task they seek to havecompleted in public parastatals. I.e., rather than enrol at a drivingschool, apply for driver’s competence tests and go for necessaryhealth check-ups before applying for a driver’s license. It almostcustom in Nigeria for individuals to bribe officials at licensing offices,who fabricate all the documents required to acquire a driver’s license.

According to (EmmanuelYeboah-Assiamah.et.al 2014) this type of corruption is “a well calculatedtransactional process involving the exploitation of public authority forpersonal or sectional advancement at the expense of the larger society; thatthe “beneficiaries” of corruption may be individuals or groups; that corruptionmay boost a person’s or a group’s economic position ornon-economic status”. The process is well calculated and thought out byboth individuals (The corruptor and the corrupted) due to the fact they bothwould reach a conclusion on their demands and expectations in the perpetrationsof the act, after they have weighed their options, planned out how and when actwill be perpetrated in order avoid being discovered or apprehended.


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