1.) rough ER helps with protein synthesis.
1.) Plasma Membrane: The plasma membrane separates the inside of the cellfrom the outside environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer that ismade of proteins and lipids.
2.) Nucleus: The nucleus is composed of a lipid bilayer to separatethe interior from the outside cytoplasm. Pores in the membrane allow formovement between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The function of the nucleus isto store DNA.3.
) Nucleolus: The nucleolus is a dense organelle that is notmembrane bound and is found inside the nucleus. Its purpose is to produce rRNAfor the production of ribosomes and protein synthesis.4.) Chromosome: Chromosomes are composed of large bound segments ofDNA, RNA, and proteins. Their purpose is to hold the genome of the cell in atight, packed manor.
5.) RNA: RNA is key in protein synthesis; in a process calledtranscriptions, RNA copies DNA which is then read by ribosomes to formproteins. RNA is composed of the four nucleotides adenine, cytosine, guanine,and uracil. The structure is formed in a single strand with the addition of ahydroxyl group.
6.) DNA: DNA is composed of the four nucleotides cytosine,adenine, guanine, and thymine in a twisted double helix shape. DNA stores allof the genetic information in a cell.7.) Ribosome: Tasked with reading mRNA and translating it toproduce strings of amino acids that form proteins. Ribosomes have two majorcomponents, a small subunit that reads the RNA and a larger subunit that joinsthe amino acids together.
8.) Smooth EndoplasmicReticulum: The smooth ER has no ribosomesattached and is involved in lipid metabolism. It is composed of membraneenclosed tubules and sacs and is the largest organelle in most cells.9.
) Rough EndoplasmicReticulum: Same basic compositionas the smooth ER but with the addition of ribosomes attached to the outermembrane which gives it its “rough: look. By holding ribosomes, the rough ERhelps with protein synthesis.10.) Golgi Apparatus: The main function of this organelle is to process andsort proteins for further transport throughout the cell as they arrive from therough ER.
Composed of a convex side where proteins arrive and a concave sidewhere the proteins depart.11.) Lysosome: Lysosomes are membrane enclosed organelles thatcontain enzymes to breakdown unwanted biological components of the cells suchas proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. 12.
) Peroxisome: Peroxisomes contain enzymes that carry out oxidationreactions that provide metabolic energy. They have a similar enzyme containingenclosed membrane structure to lysosomes.13.) Vesicle: Vesicles are small membrane enclosed sacs that areresponsible for the transportation of substances within the cell and thetransportation of substances between cells.14.) Mitochondria: Surrounded by a double membrane system that isseparated by an open gap. The inside consists of a matrix of folds that holdsthe mitochondria’s own DNA. Its purpose is to break down carbohydrates andfatty acids to produce ATP which is eventually used for energy production.
15.) Microfilament: Help form the cytoskeleton of the cell which providesstructure since cytoplasm is just a liquid. Microfilaments are long, thinstring like proteins that are mostly composed of actin.16.) Microtubule: Thicker tube-like proteins composed mostly of tubulinthat form the cytoskeleton along with microfilaments. Also help with movementof the cell.17.) IntermediateFilament: Provide structure tocells through mechanical strength.
They are in between the size of microfilamentsand microtubules. They are composed of a variety of proteins depending on thetype of cell.18.) Cytoplasm: A liquid that fills all the gaps between theorganelles in a cell.
It is a gel like substance that is mostly composed ofwater.Centriole: Help in the formation of spindle fibers thatseparate chromosomes during cell division; composed mostly of microtubules