1. Nowadays user interfaces are not only
UserExperience (UX)Person’s perceptions and responses resulting from theuse and or anticipated use of a product, system or service. 1. UX is about the completeexperience, and it may not be even about the screen.
User Interface isconcentrated on the product. User Experience emphases on the user and theirdrive through the product. User experience focuses on that product is useable,useful, desirable, findable, accessible, credible and valuable. 1.2. Internet of Things (IoT)The Internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices,vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software,sensors, actuators, and network connectivity which enables these objects toconnect and exchange data.
Each thing is uniquely identifiable through itsembedded computing system but is able to inter-operate within the existingInternet infrastructure 2. Anetwork of internet-connected items capable to gather and exchange data usingembedded sensors.1.3. UX Design for IoTUsers of connected products focuses on most visible, tangible and noticeablefeatures.
These are the industrial design of Internet of things. They are vitalalarms, which have a key influence on the end UX of the product. But they arejust a one part of the image. User can still have the bad user experience evenif UX designers make an attractive UI, and beautiful piece of hardware. 3. Nowadays user interfaces are notonly about screens now it is more about things.2.
UX DesignFor IoT is DifferentUser Experience design is changingradically from past 10-15 years. Now our many of interaction are with more thanone devices having same functionalities.Figure 1-1. BBC iPlayer can beused on connected TVs, smartphones, tablets, PCs, game consoles, and set-topboxes (image: BBC) 4User’s interaction can happen many differ ways, particularly for mobiledevices. There are some significant differences between UX for IoT and UX fordigital services.
Functionality can be distributed across more than one deviceswith diverse capabilities, IoT devices are coming with wide range of form factorswith different input and output capabilities. In connected devices may be focusof the user experience in the service, Service around the connected devices ismostly just as acute in delivering the user experience. Malfunctions likeinternet cannot expected from the real world, When a user interact with aphysical device over the internet then user interaction could lead to latencyand reliability issues as any other internet communication. IoT is not synchronous like web application. IoT is mostly asynchronous,Mostly IoT devices runs on batteries and need to conserve electricity andmaintaining network connections uses lot electric power, so this means thatsome of the devices in system could be out of sync with one another, so they createsdiscontinuities in the UX. Typically an IoT product is composed of one or more embedded devices, aninternet service, perhaps a getaway device and one or more web or mobileapplications. That’s why in IoT service code can run at many places.
Oneanother difference is a complex IoT services can have multiple UIs, manydevices, many users, many rules and applications. 3. Challenges in Designing UX for IoTConnected services stance design challenges that will be new to designersfamiliar to typical software products. Many of these challenges branch from theparticular nature of IoT devices, the flukes of networking, distributed systemsof multiple devices and the capability to bond the physical and digitaldomains. Those challenges will depend onthe context of use and user’s expectations from the system, maturity of thetechnology and the complexity of the service (e.g. number of different devicesand interactions to use it).Generally user experience design involves a series of user interactionwith system, interactions could be virtual of physical.
Best practices havebeen pretty obviously placed out for UX based solely on web and mobile, but pitchingin billions of physical connected devices makes things a slight more challengingand complex. 5. 3.1 Multiplicity of Data pointsand interfaces Diversity of data points is one the challenge. Mostly, an IoT systemneeds to tackle multiple data types from multiple devices on user interfacethat streams flawlessly across different interfaces. When these multiple datatypes from multiple devices are collected, then now end user needs to access asimple but informative user interface. Unification of the sense acrossdifferent interfaces to fit numerous user experiences is one of the majorchallenges for UX designers in IoT.3.
2 Hardware knowledge Selecting the right sensors, processors, and communication modules thatfit into an edge device determines how a user can interact with it and when thedevice is not a super powerful iPhone, these types of things matter. Forexample, if a certain processor is selected for cost reasons, it may respondvery slowly to certain commands or drain the battery very quickly, which couldreally drag down the user experience with slow speeds and outages. 5.
Decorative software and attractivedesign will not deliver users with a great user experience if the fundamentalhardware is not compatible with that experience. While selecting the hardwaresome keys facts needs to in considerations as enough MIPS/RAM/ROM, Durability,manufacturability, verity of serial interfaces and general purpose input/output(GPIO). 3.3 Connectivity and third partyintegration Connectivity plays a big role in IoT applications. Physical devicesconnected through a network and some network are fast, some can only handlelimited amounts of data, some coast alot, and on and on. Selecting a right connectivity option for a particularpurpose is very important to deliver a great user experience in IoT solutions. Connecting different application from different manufactures could be amess because hardware components are coming from variety of different vendors whichmakes difficult to integrate them all into a seamless user experience. Figure 2.
The abundance of smart-homeapps that don’t work together leads to a bad user experience. 5Forexample, a smart-home user may work a smart sound system with one app and smartlights with another, which isn’t a great experience (Fig. 2). In a more extremeexample, a smart home may have lighting from several manufacturers that mayrequire the user to operate the lights in a single house using different apps.The ultimate user experience would allow the user to operate each of thesedevices from within the same app on their phone, tablet, or smart TV. However,this isn’t as easy to accomplish in the consumer space as it can be inindustrial implementations. 5.4 Important DesignDecision Whencreating a new user interface design for Internet of things solutions, thereare some important design decisions which should be under considerations.
Enhance the user experience:If connecting a coffee pot to the internet is not adding any value to the userexperience then don’t do it. Enhance UX but never advocate it if it fails tomake the experience better. Work locally:when design for Internet of things then don’t assume internet connectivity allthe time. The ideal case would be to design for no internet connectivity atfirst, and then figure out how much functionality can be perform locally beforeaccessing internet.Upgradable andExtendable: Life Cycle of IoT devices are too long as compare to the cellphones.
Connected devise could have lifespan from 5 to 10 years. Good Designwould include the ability to easily upgrade the single unit without effectingthe rest of the system. Sometimes there are use case for the product that you havenever thought about them, and after release of your product you may have to addsome more use cases. So make sure APIs are flexible enough to extend withouteffecting other functionality of the system. 6.
A framework forIoT Design TheUIs, visuals and appealing design of the devices, the industrial design of thephysical hardware are the most visible and tangible design features of Internetof Things product. The UX is not just formed by what the user can see or comeacross directly. The basis for a valuable, appealing, usable, and coherent IoTproduct is created by care for the UX at less visible, system oriented andstrategic levels. This requires a good underlying technical, service, andproduct framework aligned around user needs. It requires attention to theexperience of using the system as a whole 3.A well-formed overall IoT product involves integrated thinking across all theselayers. The facets of design that must be integrated to deliver agood UX for a connected product are set out in Figure 3.Figure 3.
Facets ofdesign in IoT: a good product requires integrated thinking across all of these 3.It depends on the type and complexity of your service, thateither layers requires less or more of your time. User experience thinking atthe platform layers will primarily be a case of the understanding relatively asimple APIs and data it’s worth being aware of the whole image, even if not allof it is appropriate to you right now.
6.1 UI/Visuals andInteraction DesignMost tangible level of UX is user interface design (UI).Connected products can have more than one interfaces from where end user caninteract. So to achieve specific goals, interaction designers’ needs to formthe structures of actions between the user and device needed. Interactiondesigner also defines that how to establish the user-facing tasks of theproduct. Interaction design is the design of system behaviors. Primary concernof the interaction design are behaviors and actions. Some connected devices may have advanced interfaces thatmoves beyond the screens and buttons to audio, haptics, voice, gestures,tangible interactions, biometrics(from heart to brain waves) and computervision.
IoT products generates new opportunities for interacting with digitaldevices. Specialized devices can allow UX designers to discover a broader rangeof user input and output approaches that are better fit to the functions of theservice. Most software UI designers are familiarized to designing forhigh resolution color screens. But in connected devices there are range ofsimpler interfaces types. Screens can communicate a lot of information, butthey escalate the cost of device, and can make it stiffer to eradicate featurecreep. Basic LCD screens may be capable to display alphanumeric characters, orfixed custom graphical segments. In fixed segment displays, every imaginableportion of information needs to be designed into the display upfront.
RecognizingQR codes, visual channels for system input, through computer vision is also a choice.But they can sometimes be an awkward or unreliable option.6.2 Gestural andTangible InteractionsTapping and swiping on the touchscreen are the practices ofgestural inputs. Using computer vision, devices like Kinect can also identifymid-air motions. Motions/gestural inputsworks well in gaming applications, and short communications where the directionsare clear. Extensive interactions can lead to fatigue and muscle pain, andfalse positive inputs can be a problem.
Tactile and Tangible UIs give physical forms to digitalinformation. Tangible user interfaces enables straight handling throughphysical interaction. Tangible UIs can be great for interactive experiences inmuseums, educational products, or for musical instruments (Figure 4).
Hapticoutput uses tactile actions to send information, such as taps or vibration. Itcan be indirect, and strains less attention than sound or visual UIs.Figure 4.
TheReactable is a musical instrument with a tangible interface (image:Reactable/Massimo Boldrin). 36.3 Context SensitiveInterfaces Context-sensitiveinterfaces can decrease the complication by adapting interfaces based oncontext. Context-sensitive UIs can sense data points that are substitutes forcontext, such as weather, movement, the identity of the user, location, time ofday and location.
This is used to make inferences about the user’s needs,offering only the most appropriate possibilities or even taking self-directedaction. If this is executed in a sincere and smart way, it can be an influentialmanner to reduce information excess.6.
4 Interoperabilityand Composition Connectedproducts are system of devices and web services. There are often severaldevices through which the user interactions happens. UX designers can no longerconsider the user experience of a single UI in segregation.
The UX needs tofeel coherent across the system as a whole, even when the devices involved mayhave quite different form factors and input/output capabilities. This isinterusability 10.In IoT product in which multiple devices are connected,designers need to think and decide which device should do what, in terms ofuser-facing functions. Will each device have a distinctive role, specialized,or will some functionality be accessible across more than one device? This iscomposition. Proper structure takes into account the competencies of eachdevice and the context of use. Typical decision in IoT considering the end userthat weather to implement functionality into hardware interface, or divest itto a web or mobile app.6.5 Consistency andContinuity Consistencyacross multiple user interface and interactions should also be inconsideration.
UX designers need to determine which elements of the design,such as terminology, aesthetic styling, interaction architecture and platformconventions should be the identical? One of the top priority should beterminology. Identical functions must have same name, layout and styling acrossall devices. And which elements should be unlike? Different features may beprioritized on different devices. Devices with restricted user interfaces may requiredeeper functional hierarchies. Continuity is the flow of interactions and data in acoherent order through devices. It makes the sense for the user that they areinteracting with the service, not with a cluster of separate devices 11. It often means manageinterstitial situations elegantly.
UX designer may also have to tackle delays,interruptions and failures in the interfaces. Acknowledgement of the user’scommand essentials to be shown immediately in multiple connected devicessystem, but there may be a delay before it’s promising to authorize that thetarget device has truly acted on the action. 6.6 Conceptual modeland Service Design Understanding andexpectations of the end user from the system is conceptual model. How does itworks, what component and modules does it have, and how can they interact with?Connected products often have extra components, such as gateways or hubs. If anypart or component of the system loses connectivity or power then functionalityof the system will be effected. In order to use system effectively, end usersmust have some understanding of what the different components do and how theycommunicate to each other. UX designers need to explicitly design clear conceptualmodels, taking into account users’ behaviors, existing knowledge, and beliefs.
js well-suited for the IoT, which is reliant on data-intensive, real-timedevices and applications 7.AngularJS Material: AngularJS Material is both a UIComponent framework and a reference implementation of Google’s Material DesignSpecification. This project provides a set of reusable, well-tested, andaccessible UI components based on Material Design 8.openHAB: is a software for integrating different homeautomation systems and technologies into one single solution that allowsover-arching automation rules and that offers uniform user interfaces 9. 8. ExampleKnocki: is a small wireless device that instantly transformsordinary surfaces (walls, tables, doors, furniture, countertops, & more)into powerful yet easy to access remotes for your favorite devices andsoftware.
Make surfaces throughout your home or office smart with multipleKnockis. Bring the surfaces around you to life.Figure 5: Knoci inhome 10.9. ConclusionUX for connected devices is not only about the screens, UXcan happen in several ways unlike from web and mobile applications. Userinteraction in IoT system is different form digital media.
There lot of factorswhich makes UX design for IoT different. Diversity of data and interfaces, UXexperience also concerns about the service, distribution of functionality onmultiples devices, asynchronous behavior of IoT products, many places to runthe code, different technical standards from different manufacturers,complexity of the service with many users and interfaces makes IoT systemdistinguish from typical digital products.Before deigning the UX for IoT products there some decisionwhich should be taken care. If there is update comes in unit of an IoT systemor APIs of the service, system should be flexible enough to update and extendwithout effect the other parts and functionality.
While design for IoTproducts, UX designer should not consider the internet connectivity all thetime. Designers should determine thathow much functionality is possible without the internet. Do not add anything tomake product fancy if it not adding any value in user experience.Good industrial design, conceptual model and productizationalso important to attract users and make feel them solution to their problems.IoT product should come with good service and support provision, and feel ofunifications across all connected devices in a system. The UX is not just the responsibility of the designers, buteveryone involved, including product strategy and engineering.
It is vitalthing to think of the user experience at a system level, straddling userinteractions with several devices, the properties of networks, wider businessand service context, physical hardware and the underlying technology enablers. 10. Bibliography1 ISO-InternationalOrganization for Standardization. Human-centred design for interactive systemsOnline. Available: https://www.iso.
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