1. – flexible.Improved data security.Improved data scalability.Improved

1. What does the term data independence mean, and why is it an important goal? Answer:           Data independence is the capacity of adjusting the schema at one level without affecting the other.

Usually, there are three levels of schema1.Application 2.logical schema 3.

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physical schema.           In other words, it can be defined as the immunity of user application, to the changes in definition and organization of data.           It plays a vital role since it permits association’s information to change and perform without rolling out any improvements to application programs that utilize the information.

And also-Integrity and Security can be made decisive. Allow clients to focus on the general structure.Standards can be authorized.

 Changes in information structure don’t require the change in the whole application program. Cost of creating and keeping up frameworks is lower.Data independence assumes to be an important part in database condition.2. List 10 potential benefits of the database approach over conventional file systems.

Answer:        There are several advantages of Database management system over conventional file systems. Such as-Data Isolation.Duplication of data –Reduced data redundancy.

Improved dependency on application programs and also increased the productivity of application development.Data Consistency.Data Integrity.Ease of access to data activity – flexible.Improved data security.Improved data scalability.

Improved data consistency.Multiple access.Overall it gives improved data quality and accessibility.3. List five costs or risks associated with the database approach.Answer:          Apart from its overall benefits, database approach also has some risks associated with it like-Organizational conflict.

Expensive-Installation and complex management cost.Need specialized professionals.Need for explicit backup, express reinforcement, and data recovery.Unauthorized access to data, information theft.

security and privacy issues.4. In the multi-tiered database architecture, is it possible for there to be no database on a particular tier? If not, why? If yes, give an example. Answer:           A client-server architecture in which application processing, presentation, and data management functions are physically separated is termed as multi-tiered database architecture. Or a multi-tier application is an application which is developed and distributed among more than one layer, it is logically separated the different application-specific, operational layers.          Yes, it is possible for there to be no database in a multi-tier database architecture on a particular tier.

Generally, a multi-tier design like three-tier allows information for the known data framework to exist in different areas of computers. It has customer level, office minicomputer server level, Enterprise server level. In this case, Customer level tier can be considered as an example for the tier with no database, as in a customer level tier the end client machine or a computer running the client framework interface and neighborhood information- they don’t store any information that procedure from various stages.

5. Name the five phases of the traditional systems development life cycle, and explain the purpose and deliverables of each phase. Answer:          The five phases of the traditional systems development life cycle are-Planning phaseAnalysis phaseDesign phase(Logical and Physical)Implementation phaseMaintainance phasePURPOSE AND DELIVERABLES OF EACH PHASE-Planning Phase-  The main purpose of the planning phase is preliminary understanding organization’s objective.A project plan is prepared which defines a positive output. And it identifies whether there is a need for a new system to achieve a business’s strategic objectives or not.Analysis Phase-   In this phase thorough analysis of requirement and structuring is done.

The project group will choose whether to go ahead with the accessible assets or not. In this phase, functional system specifications are delivered.Design Phase-     This stage includes creation and planning of different pieces, and are set together to make the framework. The design is comprised of Server and the software product that will make database and DBMS programming. Detailed design specifications are attained.Implementation Phase-  All the above-done work is now implemented and certain tasks like programming, testing, training, installation, and documentation are done.It supports and develops the framework.

And so operational products and documents are obtained.Maintainance Phase-  In this phase the entire process is monitored, enhanced or repaired if any. This stage likewise incorporates the treatment of blunders that may exist even after testing it all together. Periodic audits are performed.                                                          


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