?Geography Test Notes: Population Trends, Fertility, Migration and Gender inequality Essay
Geography Test Notes: Population Trends, Fertility, Migration and Gender inequality22.214.171.124: Analyze trends and patterns in population using relevant case studies and indicatorsWorld Population GrowthWorlds population growing very rapidlyPopulation growth is geometric but food production is arithmetic Growth is very recent95% of population growth is taking place in LEDCsExponential growth—increasing or accelerating rate of growth It has started going down due to the fertility rateThis has led to more elderly people in the worldGlobal population growth creates:Great pressure on governments to provide for their peopleIncreased pressure on the environmentIncreased risk on famine and malnutritionGreater difference between the richer and poorer countriesAIDs also having a lasting impact in developing countries as it causes a population decline Crude birth rate does not take into account the age and sex structure of population Total fertility rate—average number of children a woman would have if she expended the current age-specific fertility rates through her life time, and she were to survive through child birth. The poorest countries have the highest fertility ratesIn developed countries, birth rates, and fertility rates have fallen Birth rate—the number of births per 1000 in a populationBirth rates get high becauseParents want children for labourTo look after them in old ageTo continue the family nameFor prestigeTo replace other children who have diedChildren are net contributors to family incomeBirth rates go down becauseChildren are costlyThe government looks after people through pension and health services More women want their own career and have higher statusThere is widespread use of family planningInfant mortality goes down so there is a less need for replacement children A decline in traditional beliefs and customsBirth rates can be tested differentlyCrude birth rate—the number of births per 1000 in a population Age-specific birth rate—the number of births per 1000 women of any specified year group Standardized birth rate—a birth rate for a region on the basis that its age composition is the same as for the whole country Fertility rates can be tested differentlyGeneral fertility rate—the number of births per 1000 women aged 15—49 years Total fertility rate—the average number of births per 1000 women of childbearing age Death rates are high when there is a lack of clean water and food, poor hygiene and sanitation, overcrowding, contagious diseases such as diarrhea and vomiting and respiratory infections Conditions associated with povertyTherefore death rates are highest in poor rural areas, shanty towns, refugee camps and areas of relative and absolute poverty Death rates decline when there is:Clean waterA reliable food supplyGood hygiene and sanitationLower population densitiesBetter vaccination and health careIn short, rising standards of livingAuthorities can reduce death rates by providing access to clean water, food, shelter and sanitation Crude death rate—the number of deaths per 1000 peoplein a population This is a poor indicator because populations with a large number of aged will have a higher CDR despite being an MEDC Infant mortality rate and child mortality rate is also used for the demographics of a country Infant mortality rate—number of deaths per 1000 people who are under one year old Child mortality rate—number of deaths per 1000 people who are from 1 to 5 years old Mortality areas are higher among areas of povertyChild mortality rate has fluctuations unlike infant morality rate High IMRs in poorest countriesCauses of infant deaths are often preventable so its an effective testing method Relies on safe water supply, adequate sanitation, housing, healthcare and nutrition Life expectancy is also used to measure the demographicsThis rate has been steadily rising but in Africa is has been slow because of the rise of HIV/AIDS Higher standards of living and near-eradication of infectious diseases People will live longer and people born in rich countries are expected to live into their early 100s and late 90s Diseases and illnesses also cared for better as they are diagnosed early and get better treatment As a country develops, the major forms of illness and death change LEDCs have a high proportion of infectious diseases that are waterborne or vector-borne MEDCs have degenerative conditions such as cancer, strokes or heart disease Higher the life expectancy, higher the crude death ratePoorer people have higher mortality ratesSome diseases such as military or mining have hazardous and can lead to diseases and higher mortality rate Population structure tell us a great deal about the age and sex structure of a population Different organizations can use themCan tell growth toThe things to look out for are:A wide base suggests a high birth rateA narrowing base suggests a falling birth rateStraight or near-vertical sides show a low death rateA concave slope suggests a high death rateBulges in the slope indicate high rates of in-migrationDeficits in slope show out-migration or age-specific or sex-specific deaths Progressive—Stationary—RegressivePopulation Structure—any measurable characteristic of the population. This includes the age, sex, ethnicity, language, religion and occupation of population Growth rate is annual percentage change in population and it is either positive or negativeIt changes due to a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and also depends on migrants This helps countries decide the needs of its people in terms of infrastructure (schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources and jobs. Methods used to measure growth rates include:Doubling Time—the length of time it takes for a population to double in size Population momentum—tendency for population to grow despite a fall in birth rate or fertility rates or for a tendency for the population to continue to fall despite a rise in the birth rate Population projections—predictions about future population based on trends in fertility, mortality and migrationGEO 1.3.
1.2 Evaluate national responses to high and low fertilityIn some countries fertility is high while in other it is too low and the government attempts to solve these problems The dependency ratio measures the working population and the dependent population Population aged 64/Population aged 16—64Crude because many stay at school after 15 and work after 64 In developed world there is a high proportion of elderlyOlder dependency ratio measures the number of people aged 65 and over for every 100 people aged 20 to 64. In developing world there is a high proportion of youthAn ageing population has advantages such as:Skills ad trainingSocial skillsGranny culture—take care of the youthImportant to markets of holiday companies or health careHigh fertility during one generation leads to an ageing population Improvements in healthcare also bringing down death ratesPension systems and health services will have a huge strain because of this trend Europe has 23 of the worlds oldest 25 countriesGlaring contrast between life expectancy of rich and poor countries Advantages of youthful population include:Large potential workforceLower medical costsAttractive to new investmentSource of new innovation and ideasDevelopment of services for selected goodsDisadvantages of youthful population includeCost of supporting schools and clinicsNeed to provide sufficient food, housing and waterHigh rates of unemploymentLarge number in poor quality housesHigh rates of population growthHigh crime ratesSince 1945 Japan’s birth and death rates have decreasedThis has introduced problems such asInadequate nursing facilitiesDepletion of the labor forceDeterioration of the economyA trade deficitMigration of Japanese industry to overseasCost of funding pensions and healthcareFalling demand for schools and teachersNew jobs needed for elderlyNew leisure facilities needed for elderlyIncrease in in the burden on the working populationNeed for in-migrationGovernments either want to increase population size (pro-natalist) ordecrease it (anti-natalist) Family planning methods include pill, condoms, forced sterilization, abortion or infanticide In 1960s, Romania was approaching zero population growthBad for labor supply and industrializationAbortion on demand banned with serious penaltiesSpecial tax for people who had no kids after 25Divorce difficultFamily allowances raised and monetary awards for mothers for birth of third child Tax rate reduced for parentsDrastic improvement of growth rate of 92.8%Led to other problems such as infant mortality ratesTrends returned to what they were before as police lost interest In India, the fertility is too high so the government is attempting to reduce it Large problem of foeticideGender-based abortion a big problemDaughter is considered a loss and son as assetDaughter—dowry and son—inherit property and care for parents Unmarried young men turning to crimeViolence against womenPurchase of bridesChild policies and access to family planning and educationGEO 1.3.1.
3 Discuss the causes of and responses to internal and international migrationMigration is the movement of people, involving a permanent (more than a year) change of residence. It can be internal or external, and voluntary or forced. Most voluntary migrants are people moving for:Work (true for young people)To retire (true for rich old people)Seeking a better life in a smaller urban area as compared to a big urban area Educational or health reasonsForced migrations may be due to:Civil conflictEnvironmental damagePersecutionMigrations are commonly divided into a number of types:Forced or voluntaryLong distance or short distanceInternational or internalMost migrants proceed over a short distance due to limited technology/transport and poor communications, people know more about local opportunities Migration occurs in a series of steps or stages (rural to small town to large town to city) Migration also involves movement away from large cities. The rich move away from urban areas to small communities.
Long-distance migrants are more likely to go to large cities for job opportunities. Rural dwellers migrate more since there are fewer opportunities in rural areas. Women are more migratory than men over short distances, especially for marriage in societies where the status of women is low Migration increases with advances in technology such as transport, communications, and spread of information Number of migrants going to a place was proportional to the number of opportunities at that location Remittances—transfer of money or goods by foreign workers to their home countries.
Migration can also be described in terms of push and pull factors Push factors are negative features that cause a person to move away from a place: UnemploymentLow wagesNatural hazardsPull factors are the attractions (real or imagined) that exist at another place: Better wagesSafetyMore jobsGood schoolsOften times pull factors are perceived or imaginedInternational migration can have a range of positive and negative impacts on both the source area and the destination Some economies could not function without foreign workers such as UAE as migrants make up 85% of thepopulation Migrants fill jobs often because they lack skills or have skills LEDCs are losing their skilled professionals as they look for opportunities elsewhere. Health sector is most effectedSuch countries that experience a brain drain rely on remittances Educated migrants are overqualified for their jobsBrain drains occur becauseThey want higher living standardsBetter career opportunitiesPositive impacts of international migration on source area include: Population pressure reducedRemittancesNegative impacts of international migration on source area include: Removal of younger, more educated peopleDecline in local market/pulling powerReduced workforceClosure of local services such as schoolsPositive impacts of international migration on destination include: Population growthLarger workforceIncreased demand for housingIncreased demand for servicesNew industry and investment attracted to the areaNew skilled young work forceMulticultural environmentEconomic growth because the workforce is increased and it has been proved that there is a correlation between migration and the nation’s GDP. They also tend to create jobs rather than take them allowing locals to also be employed. They help fill the job gaps at both a skilled and unskilled level. Germany has a very small workforce so they need educated immigrants to come into the country.
Many locals also go to college and seek an education so there is no one left to do the unskilled labor, which is also why some countries depend on immigrants. This is crucial during times where there is or there is not economic growthNegative impacts of international migration on destination include: Racism and segregationCultural disharmonyOvercrowding and ghettoizationSpread of diseaseMigrant workers are those who migrate to find workMigrant labor is important to many MEDCsMigrant workers move for better working conditions in terms of pay and benefits Freedom of movement in EU so nationals of any EU country can migrate to one another Economic costs of source country include:Loss of young laborLoss of skilled laborLess investmentEconomic benefits of source country include;Reduced unemploymentReturning migrants bring back new skillsRemittancesLess pressure on resources such as landSocial costs of source country include:Creates a culture of out-migrationUnbalanced population pyramidSocial benefits of source country include:Lower birth rates and reduced population pressureRemittances may improve education and welfareRetiring population may build new homesEconomic costs of destination country include:Cost of educating childrenDisplacement of local laborMoney sent to country of originIncreased pressure on resourcesEconomic benefits of destination country includeUndesirable posts often filledSkills gained at little costRetirement costs transferred to destination countrySocial costs of destination country include:RacismMale dominated statesLoss of cultural identityGhettos createdSocial benefits of destination country include:Multicultural societiesCultural awarenessProviders of local servicesGrowth of ethnic services (restaurants)Example of forced migration are refugeesThis is a person who is fleeing their hope in order to escape danger They are asylum seekers before they become refugeeIf you enter another country without the state’s approval you are an illegal immigrant An economic migrant seeks job opportunitiesIDPs are displaced in their own nation but ran away from home For a refugee, push factors include:Environmental deteriorationState persecutionNatural disastersWarsGEO 126.96.36.199 Critically evaluate key factors that contribute to gender inequalitiesThe achievement of equality between men and women implies that they should have equal rights, opportunities and responsibilities to enable them to develop their talent and capabilities for their own personal fulfillment and the benefit of society Women’s empowerment can be divided into reproductive control, violence and abuse, employment, freedom, access to education Reproductive control:In some countries, women have no control over the amount of kids they themselves will have This is often decided by the mother-in-law or the husbandSince sons are so much sought after, women are sometimes forced to have multiple children This is often more than they can handleGirls are usually killed and this also puts mothers in danger which lessens their life expectancy Unfortunately, this is Indian cultureMutilated genitals which leads to diseaseViolence and abuseIn Islamic countries mostly, women are subject to violence such as rape and domestic violence IN countries such as Saudi Arabia, women can be killed by their husband for even talking to another man It takes 4 adult males to tell the judge if a women is raped if she decides to press charges and so, the rapist gets away with it Economic opportunitiesWomen are often disadvantaged when it comes to economic opportunities They receive less pay for men even if they are doing more work If they have access to credit they are empowered as they are placed in a decision making position If they have a land title, they can use it as collateral to apply for a loan Many women fail to break the glass ceiling because of inconveniences such as childcare is too expensive and that they are not flexible hours in management FreedomIn many countries, women do not have rightsIn Saudi Arabia, they cannot talk to other men, drive a car, leave the house without a male escort They must wear a hijabIn African and Muslim countries they are expected to stay home and care for the kids Do not have a say on who they will marryAccess to educationMany people such as extremists believe that women are not entitled to education Burn women with acid in Afghanistan if they attempt to go to school Interpret Quran in that wayFor this reason, there are many abortions of girls as they are considered liabilities In China many women internally migrate looking for jobs but are ill-treated Gender Development Index measures gender equalityIt finds the average of:Longevity: female and male life expectancy at birthKnowledge—female and male literacy rates and school enrollment ratios Income per capita—male and female incomeThis can be compared to HDI, the closer they are, the more equal genders are Another tool is the Gender Empowerment measure which usesPolitical participation—number of seats held by women in parliament Economic participation—Female in executive roles in a firm or company Power over economic resources—income earned by females as compared to that of men